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      Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Plasma Lipoproteins and Apolipoproteins, Endothelial Function and Myocardial Perfusion in Postmenopausal Women with Estrogen Receptor-α IVS1–397 C/C Genotype and Established Coronary Artery Disease

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          Abstract

          Effect of hormone replacement (HRT) therapy on plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, endothelial function and myocardial perfusion in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) IVS1–397 C/C genotype and established coronary artery disease. Background/Aims: Associations between various ER-α polymorphisms and clinical phenotypes have been studied, including lipid levels and coronary atherosclerosis. We studied 48 postmenopausal women to determine the effect of ER-α IVS1–397 polymorphism on the response to treatment with HRT. Methods: The study had a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossover design. Patients were divided into two groups according to ER-α IVS1–397 polymorphism: CC genotype (n = 9); CT or TT genotype (n = 39). HRT was given continuously for 4 weeks, with 4-week washout periods between the treatment periods. Brachial artery Doppler and Tl-201 scintigraphy were performed at the end of each treatment period. Results: HRT lowered total cholesterol, LDL-c and Apo-B levels from baseline values (all p < 0.05) and to a similar degree in CC and CT/TT genotype patients. HRT increased estradiol, HDL-c and Apo A-1 levels relative to baseline values, but to a greater degree in CC patients (p = 0.04, 0.05 and 0.04 by ANOVA, respectively). HRT increased peak forearm blood flow, brachial artery diameter during reactive hyperemia and endothelium-dependent dilation in both groups, but to a greater degree in CC patients (p = 0.03, 0.03 and 0.04 by ANOVA, respectively). Summed stress and rest scores were also more markedly reduced in CC patients (p = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively). The increase in estradiol levels was strongly correlated with the improvement in endothelium-dependent dilation (r = 0.66, p < 0.01), which in turn showed negative correlation with summed stress (r = –0.62, p < 0.01) and rest scores (r = –0.52, p < 0.05) in the CC genotype group. Conclusion: These data suggest that the improvement in endothelium-dependent dilation and the reduction in perfusion abnormalities by increasing estradiol levels with HRT in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease may differ with respect to different genotypes, the effect being more prominent in those patients with ER-α IVS1–397 CC genotype.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Effects of estrogen replacement on the progression of coronary-artery atherosclerosis.

          Heart disease is a major cause of illness and death in women. To understand better the role of estrogen in the treatment and prevention of heart disease, more information is needed about its effects on coronary atherosclerosis and the extent to which concomitant progestin therapy may modify these effects. We randomly assigned a total of 309 women with angiographically verified coronary disease to receive 0.625 mg of conjugated estrogen per day, 0.625 mg of conjugated estrogen plus 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate per day, or placebo. The women were followed for a mean (+/-SD) of 3.2+/-0.6 years. Base-line and follow-up coronary angiograms were analyzed by quantitative coronary angiography. Estrogen and estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate produced significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (9.4 percent and 16.5 percent, respectively) and significant increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (18.8 percent and 14.2 percent, respectively); however, neither treatment altered the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. After adjustment for measurements at base line, the mean (+/-SE) minimal coronary-artery diameters at follow-up were 1.87+/-0.02 mm, 1.84+/-0.02 mm, and 1.87+/-0.02 mm in women assigned to estrogen, estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, and placebo, respectively. The differences between the values for the two active-treatment groups and the value for the placebo group were not significant. Analyses of several secondary angiographic outcomes and subgroups of women produced similar results. The rates of clinical cardiovascular events were also similar among the treatment groups. Neither estrogen alone nor estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate affected the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in women with established disease. These results suggest that such women should not use estrogen replacement with an expectation of cardiovascular benefit.
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            Effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on the concentrations and metabolism of plasma lipoproteins.

            Postmenopausal estrogen-replacement therapy may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, and this beneficial effect may be mediated in part by favorable changes in plasma lipid levels. However, the effects on plasma lipoprotein levels of postmenopausal estrogens in the low doses currently used have not been precisely quantified, and the mechanism of these effects is unknown. We conducted two randomized, double-blind crossover studies in healthy postmenopausal women who had normal lipid values at base line. In study 1, 31 women received placebo and conjugated estrogens at two doses (0.625 mg and 1.25 mg per day), each treatment for three months. In study 2, nine women received placebo, oral micronized estradiol (2 mg per day), and transdermal estradiol (0.1 mg twice a week), each treatment for six weeks. The metabolism of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured by endogenously labeling their protein component, apolipoprotein B. In study 1, the conjugated estrogens at doses of 0.625 mg per day and 1.25 mg per day decreased the mean LDL cholesterol level by 15 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 11 to 19 percent; P less than 0.0001) and 19 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 15 to 23 percent; P less than 0.0001), respectively; increased the HDL cholesterol level by 16 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 12 to 20 percent; P less than 0.0001) and 18 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14 to 22 percent; P less than 0.0001), respectively; and increased VLDL triglyceride levels by 24 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 8 to 40 percent; P less than 0.003) and 42 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 26 to 58 percent; P less than 0.0001), respectively. In study 2, oral estradiol increased the mean concentration of large VLDL apolipoprotein B by 30 +/- 10 percent (P = 0.05) by increasing its production rate by 82 +/- 18 percent (P less than 0.01). Most of this additional large VLDL was cleared directly from the circulation and was not converted to small VLDL or LDL. Oral estradiol reduced LDL cholesterol concentrations by 14 +/- 3 percent (P less than 0.005), because LDL catabolism increased by 36 +/- 7 percent (P less than 0.005). The oral estradiol increased the HDL cholesterol level by 15 +/- 2 percent (P less than 0.0001). Transdermal estradiol had no effect. The postmenopausal use of oral estrogens in low doses favorably alters LDL and HDL levels that may protect women against atherosclerosis, while minimizing potentially adverse effects on triglyceride levels. The decrease in LDL levels results from accelerated LDL catabolism; the increase in triglyceride levels results from increased production of large, triglyceride-rich VLDL.
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              A rapid procedure for extracting genomic DNA from leukocytes.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2006
                June 2006
                03 July 2006
                : 106
                : 1
                : 44-50
                Affiliations
                Departments of aCardiology, and bRadiology, Siyami Ersek Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Center, cDepartment of Biology, Marmara University Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey
                Article
                92598 Cardiology 2006;106:44–50
                10.1159/000092598
                16612068
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 29, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

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