Male fetal Leydig cells in the testis secrete androgen and insulin-like 3, determining the sexual differentiation. The abnormal development of fetal Leydig cells could lead to the reduction of androgen and insulin-like 3, thus causing the male reproductive tract anomalies in male neonates, including cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Environmental pollutants, such as phthalic acid esters (phthalates), can perturb the development and differentiated function of Leydig cells, thereby contributing to the reproductive toxicity in the male. Here, we review the epidemiological studies in humans and experimental investigations in rodents of various phthalates. Most of phthalates disturb the expression of various genes encoded for steroidogenesis-related proteins and insulin-like 3 in fetal Leydig cells and the dose-additive effects are exerted after exposure in a mixture.