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Bortezomib-based therapy for transplant-ineligible East Asian patients with newly diagnosed mantle-cell lymphoma

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      Abstract

      Introduction

      This subgroup analysis of the LYM-3002 Phase III study (NCT00722137) investigated whether substituting bortezomib for vincristine in frontline R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) therapy could improve outcomes in East Asian patients with newly diagnosed mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL).

      Materials and methods

      A total of 121 East Asian patients from China, Taiwan, Japan, and the Republic of Korea with stage II–IV MCL who were ineligible or not considered for stem-cell transplantation were enrolled to six to eight 21-day cycles of R-CHOP or VR-CAP (R-CHOP with bortezomib replacing vincristine).

      Results

      The primary end point was progression-free survival. After a median follow-up of 42.4 months, median progression-free survival in East Asian patients was 13.9 (R-CHOP) versus 28.6 (VR-CAP) months (HR 0.7, P=0.157; 43% improvement with VR-CAP). Secondary end points (R-CHOP vs VR-CAP), including complete response rate (47% vs 63%), duration of complete response (median 16.6 vs 46.7 months), and treatment-free interval (median 21 vs 46.5 months), were improved with VR-CAP. VR-CAP was associated with increased but manageable toxicity. The most frequent adverse events were hematologic toxicities.

      Conclusion

      VR-CAP was effective in East Asian patients with newly diagnosed MCL, and could be considered for patients in whom stem-cell transplantation is not an option.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 41

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      A clinical evaluation of the International Lymphoma Study Group classification of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Classification Project.

      The recognition of several new types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in recent years has led to proposals for changing lymphoma classifications, including a new proposal put forth by the International Lymphoma Study Group (ILSG). However, the clinical significance of the new entities and the practical utility of this new proposal have not been studied. Therefore, we performed a clinical evaluation of the ILSG classification. A cohort of 1,403 cases of NHL was organized at nine study sites around the world and consisted of consecutive patients seen between 1988 and 1990 who were previously untreated. A detailed protocol for histologic and clinical analysis was followed at each site, and immunologic characterization as to T- or B-cell phenotype was required. Five expert hematopathologists visited the sites and each classified each case using the ILSG classification. A consensus diagnosis was also reached in each case, and each expert rereviewed a 20% random sample of the cases. Clinical correlations and survival analyses were then performed. A diagnosis of NHL was confirmed in 1,378 (98.2%) of the cases. The most common lymphoma types were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (31%) and follicular lymphoma (22%), whereas the new entities comprised 21% of the cases. Diagnostic accuracy was at least 85% for most of the major lymphoma types, and reproducibility of the diagnosis was 85%. Immunophenotyping improved the diagnostic accuracy by 10% to 45% for a number of the major types. The clinical features of the new entities were distinctive. Both the histologic types and the patient characteristics as defined by the International Prognostic Index predicted for patient survival. In conclusion we found that the ILSG classification can be readily applied and identifies clinically distinctive types of NHL. However, for clinical application, prognostic factors as defined by the International Prognostic Index must be combined with the histologic diagnosis for appropriate clinical decisions.
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        Bendamustine plus rituximab versus CHOP plus rituximab as first-line treatment for patients with indolent and mantle-cell lymphomas: an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 non-inferiority trial.

        Rituximab plus chemotherapy, most often CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), is the first-line standard of care for patients with advanced indolent lymphoma, and for elderly patients with mantle-cell lymphoma. Bendamustine plus rituximab is effective for relapsed or refractory disease. We compared bendamustine plus rituximab with CHOP plus rituximab (R-CHOP) as first-line treatment for patients with indolent and mantle-cell lymphomas. We did a prospective, multicentre, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial at 81 centres in Germany between Sept 1, 2003, and Aug 31, 2008. Patients aged 18 years or older with a WHO performance status of 2 or less were eligible if they had newly diagnosed stage III or IV indolent or mantle-cell lymphoma. Patients were stratified by histological lymphoma subtype, then randomly assigned according to a prespecified randomisation list to receive either intravenous bendamustine (90 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2 of a 4-week cycle) or CHOP (cycles every 3 weeks of cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2), doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), and vincristine 1.4 mg/m(2) on day 1, and prednisone 100 mg/day for 5 days) for a maximum of six cycles. Patients in both groups received rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on day 1 of each cycle. Patients and treating physicians were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, with a non-inferiority margin of 10%. Analysis was per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00991211, and the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices of Germany, BfArM 4021335. 274 patients were assigned to bendamustine plus rituximab (261 assessed) and 275 to R-CHOP (253 assessed). At median follow-up of 45 months (IQR 25-57), median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the bendamustine plus rituximab group than in the R-CHOP group (69.5 months [26.1 to not yet reached] vs 31.2 months [15.2-65.7]; hazard ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.74; p<0.0001). Bendamustine plus rituximab was better tolerated than R-CHOP, with lower rates of alopecia (0 patients vs 245 (100%) of 245 patients who recieved ≥3 cycles; p<0.0001), haematological toxicity (77 [30%] vs 173 [68%]; p<0.0001), infections (96 [37%] vs 127 [50%]); p=0.0025), peripheral neuropathy (18 [7%] vs 73 [29%]; p<0.0001), and stomatitis (16 [6%] vs 47 [19%]; p<0.0001). Erythematous skin reactions were more common in patients in the bendamustine plus rituximab group than in those in the R-CHOP group (42 [16%] vs 23 [9%]; p=0.024). In patients with previously untreated indolent lymphoma, bendamustine plus rituximab can be considered as a preferred first-line treatment approach to R-CHOP because of increased progression-free survival and fewer toxic effects. Roche Pharma AG, Ribosepharm/Mundipharma GmbH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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          Multicenter phase II study of bortezomib in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma.

          Evaluate response rate, duration of response (DOR), time-to-progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and safety of bortezomib treatment in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) was administered on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle, for up to 17 cycles. Response and progression were determined using International Workshop Response Criteria, both using data from independent radiology review and by the investigators. Primary efficacy analyses were based on data from independent radiology review. In total, 155 patients were treated. Median number of prior therapies was one (range, one to three). Response rate in 141 assessable patients was 33% including 8% complete response (CR)/unconfirmed CR. Median DOR was 9.2 months. Median TTP was 6.2 months. Results by investigator assessments were similar. Median OS has not been reached after a median follow-up of 13.4 months. The safety profile of bortezomib was similar to previous experience in relapsed multiple myeloma. The most common adverse events grade 3 or higher were peripheral neuropathy (13%), fatigue (12%), and thrombocytopenia (11%). Death from causes that were considered to be treatment related was reported for 3% of patients. These results confirm the activity of bortezomib in relapsed or refractory MCL, with predictable and manageable toxicities. Bortezomib provides significant clinical activity in terms of durable and complete responses, and may therefore represent a new treatment option for this population with usually very poor outcome. Studies of bortezomib-based combinations in MCL are ongoing.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
            [2 ]Key Laboratory of Hematologic Malignancies, Diagnosis and Treatment, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
            [3 ]Department of Chemotherapy, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
            [4 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
            [5 ]Division of Hematology–Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linkou, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
            [6 ]Department of Lymphoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China
            [7 ]Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
            [8 ]Lymphoma and GI Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China
            [9 ]Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA
            [10 ]Janssen Research & Development, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, UK
            [11 ]Oncology Clinical Research, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boston, MA, USA
            [12 ]Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, huang_sysu@ 123456163.com
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Huiqiang Huang, Ward 4, Internal Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 651 East Dongfeng Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060, China, Tel/fax +86 20 8734 3350, Email huang_sysu@ 123456163.com
            Journal
            Onco Targets Ther
            Onco Targets Ther
            OncoTargets and Therapy
            OncoTargets and therapy
            Dove Medical Press
            1178-6930
            2018
            06 July 2018
            : 11
            : 3869-3882
            6039072
            10.2147/OTT.S150339
            ott-11-3869
            © 2018 Jin et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

            The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

            Categories
            Original Research

            Oncology & Radiotherapy

            vr-cap, mantle-cell lymphoma, bortezomib, r-chop

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