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      Phosphoinositides, Major Actors in Membrane Trafficking and Lipid Signaling Pathways

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          Abstract

          Phosphoinositides are lipids involved in the vesicular transport of proteins and lipids between the different compartments of eukaryotic cells. They act by recruiting and/or activating effector proteins and thus are involved in regulating various cellular functions, such as vesicular budding, membrane fusion and cytoskeleton dynamics. Although detected in small concentrations in membranes, their role is essential to cell function, since imbalance in their concentrations is a hallmark of many cancers. Their synthesis involves phosphorylating/dephosphorylating positions D3, D4 and/or D5 of their inositol ring by specific lipid kinases and phosphatases. This process is tightly regulated and specific to the different intracellular membranes. Most enzymes involved in phosphoinositide synthesis are conserved between yeast and human, and their loss of function leads to severe diseases (cancer, myopathy, neuropathy and ciliopathy).

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          Most cited references 104

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          Autophagosome formation from membrane compartments enriched in phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and dynamically connected to the endoplasmic reticulum

          Autophagy is the engulfment of cytosol and organelles by double-membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes. Autophagosome formation is known to require phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) and occurs near the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but the exact mechanisms are unknown. We show that double FYVE domain–containing protein 1, a PI(3)P-binding protein with unusual localization on ER and Golgi membranes, translocates in response to amino acid starvation to a punctate compartment partially colocalized with autophagosomal proteins. Translocation is dependent on Vps34 and beclin function. Other PI(3)P-binding probes targeted to the ER show the same starvation-induced translocation that is dependent on PI(3)P formation and recognition. Live imaging experiments show that this punctate compartment forms near Vps34-containing vesicles, is in dynamic equilibrium with the ER, and provides a membrane platform for accumulation of autophagosomal proteins, expansion of autophagosomal membranes, and emergence of fully formed autophagosomes. This PI(3)P-enriched compartment may be involved in autophagosome biogenesis. Its dynamic relationship with the ER is consistent with the idea that the ER may provide important components for autophagosome formation.
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            A transforming mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1 in cancer.

            Although AKT1 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1) kinase is a central member of possibly the most frequently activated proliferation and survival pathway in cancer, mutation of AKT1 has not been widely reported. Here we report the identification of a somatic mutation in human breast, colorectal and ovarian cancers that results in a glutamic acid to lysine substitution at amino acid 17 (E17K) in the lipid-binding pocket of AKT1. Lys 17 alters the electrostatic interactions of the pocket and forms new hydrogen bonds with a phosphoinositide ligand. This mutation activates AKT1 by means of pathological localization to the plasma membrane, stimulates downstream signalling, transforms cells and induces leukaemia in mice. This mechanism indicates a direct role of AKT1 in human cancer, and adds to the known genetic alterations that promote oncogenesis through the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/AKT pathway. Furthermore, the E17K substitution decreases the sensitivity to an allosteric kinase inhibitor, so this mutation may have important clinical utility for AKT drug development.
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              Akt signalling in health and disease.

              Akt (also known as protein kinase B or PKB) comprises three closely related isoforms Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3 (or PKBα/β/γ respectively). We have a very good understanding of the mechanisms by which Akt isoforms are activated by growth factors and other extracellular stimuli as well as by oncogenic mutations in key upstream regulatory proteins including Ras, PI3-kinase subunits and PTEN. There are also an ever increasing number of Akt substrates being identified that play a role in the regulation of the diverse array of biological effects of activated Akt; this includes the regulation of cell proliferation, survival and metabolism. Dysregulation of Akt leads to diseases of major unmet medical need such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. As a result there has been substantial investment in the development of small molecular Akt inhibitors that act competitively with ATP or phospholipid binding, or allosterically. In this review we will briefly discuss our current understanding of how Akt isoforms are regulated, the substrate proteins they phosphorylate and how this integrates with the role of Akt in disease. We will furthermore discuss the types of Akt inhibitors that have been developed and are in clinical trials for human cancer, as well as speculate on potential on-target toxicities, such as disturbances of heart and vascular function, metabolism, memory and mood, which should be monitored very carefully during clinical trial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                15 March 2017
                March 2017
                : 18
                : 3
                Affiliations
                Department of Molecular and Cellular Genetics, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, GMGM UMR 7156, F-67000 Strasbourg, France; dimitri.bertazzi@ 123456gmail.com (D.L.B.); sbar@ 123456unistra.fr (S.B.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: johan-owen.decraene@ 123456univ-tours.fr (J.-O.D.C.); s.friant@ 123456unistra.fr (S.F.); Tel.: +33-247-367-212 (J.-O.D.C.); +33-368-851-360 (S.F.)
                [†]

                Present address: EA 2106, Biomolécules et Biotechnologies Végétales, Université François Rabelais de Tours, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France.

                Article
                ijms-18-00634
                10.3390/ijms18030634
                5372647
                28294977
                3173dcf9-cc6a-41c4-b377-a056377921c1
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology

                lipids, membrane trafficking, vesicles, phosphoinositides, phosphatase, kinase

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