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      The ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA lineages.

      American Journal of Human Genetics

      Africa, ethnology, Asia, Brazil, DNA, Mitochondrial, classification, genetics, Europe, European Continental Ancestry Group, Fathers, Female, Gene Frequency, Gene Pool, Geography, Haplotypes, Humans, Indians, South American, Male, Molecular Sequence Data, Mothers, Phylogeny, Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length, Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid

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          Abstract

          We have analyzed 247 Brazilian mtDNAs for hypervariable segment (HVS)-I and selected restriction fragment-length-polymorphism sites, to assess their ancestry in different continents. The total sample showed nearly equal amounts of Native American, African, and European matrilineal genetic contribution but with regional differences within Brazil. The mtDNA pool of present-day Brazilians clearly reflects the imprints of the early Portuguese colonization process (involving directional mating), as well as the recent immigrant waves (from Europe) of the last century. The subset of 99 mtDNAs from the southeastern region encompasses nearly all mtDNA haplogroups observed in the total Brazilian sample; for this regional subset, HVS-II was analyzed, providing, in particular, some novel details of the African mtDNA phylogeny.

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          Journal
          10873790
          1287189
          10.1086/303004

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