22
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Identification of microplastic in effluents of waste water treatment plants using focal plane array-based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging.

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The global presence of microplastic (MP) in aquatic ecosystems has been shown by various studies. However, neither MP concentrations nor their sources or sinks are completely known. Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered as significant point sources discharging MP to the environment. This study investigated MP in the effluents of 12 WWTPs in Lower Saxony, Germany. Samples were purified by a plastic-preserving enzymatic-oxidative procedure and subsequent density separation using a zinc chloride solution. For analysis, attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) and focal plane array (FPA)-based transmission micro-FT-IR imaging were applied. This allowed the identification of polymers of all MP down to a size of 20 μm. In all effluents MP was found with quantities ranging from 0 to 5 × 101 m-3 MP > 500 μm and 1 × 101 to 9 × 103 m-3 MP < 500 μm. By far, polyethylene was the most frequent polymer type in both size classes. Quantities of synthetic fibres ranged from 9 × 101 to 1 × 103 m-3 and were predominantly made of polyester. Considering the annual effluxes of tested WWTPs, total discharges of 9 × 107 to 4 × 109 MP particles and fibres per WWTP could be expected. Interestingly, one tertiary WWTP had an additionally installed post-filtration that reduced the total MP discharge by 97%. Furthermore, the sewage sludge of six WWTPs was examined and the existence of MP, predominantly polyethylene, revealed. Our findings suggest that WWTPs could be a sink but also a source of MP and thus can be considered to play an important role for environmental MP pollution.

          Related collections

          Author and article information

          Journal
          Water Res.
          Water research
          Elsevier BV
          1879-2448
          0043-1354
          Jan 01 2017
          : 108
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, P.O. Box 180, 27483 Helgoland, Germany; Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science Group, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: s.m.mintenig@uu.nl.
          [2 ] Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, P.O. Box 180, 27483 Helgoland, Germany.
          [3 ] Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, P.O. Box 180, 27483 Helgoland, Germany; Animal Ecology I, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany.
          Article
          S0043-1354(16)30860-0
          10.1016/j.watres.2016.11.015
          27838027
          317d5c37-bd9d-4510-8c2f-95efb5386109
          History

          Enzymatic purification,FT-IR spectroscopy,Microplastic identification,Pollution,Synthetic fibres,Treated waste water

          Comments

          Comment on this article