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      Modifying Adolescent Interpretation Biases Through Cognitive Training: Effects on Negative Affect and Stress Appraisals

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          Abstract

          Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of ambiguous situations can improve anxious mood-states particularly in response towards stress. While, these investigations have been partially extended to adolescents with success, inconsistent training effects on anxious mood-states have been found. The present study investigated whether positive versus negative CBM-I training influenced appraisals of stress, in forty-nine adolescents, aged 15–18. Data supported the plasticity of interpretational styles, with positively-trained adolescents selecting more benign resolutions of new ambiguous situations, than negatively-trained adolescents. Positively-trained adolescents also rated recent stressors as having less impact on their lives than negatively-trained adolescents. Thus, while negative styles may increase negative responses towards stress, positive styles may boost resilience.

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          A measure of positive and negative affect for children: Scale development and preliminary validation.

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            Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders.

            Mental imagery has been considered relevant to psychopathology due to its supposed special relationship with emotion, although evidence for this assumption has been conspicuously lacking. The present review is divided into four main sections: (1) First, we review evidence that imagery can evoke emotion in at least three ways: a direct influence on emotional systems in the brain that are responsive to sensory signals; overlap between processes involved in mental imagery and perception which can lead to responding "as if" to real emotion-arousing events; and the capacity of images to make contact with memories for emotional episodes in the past. (2) Second, we describe new evidence confirming that imagery does indeed evoke greater emotional responses than verbal representation, although the extent of emotional response depends on the image perspective adopted. (3) Third, a heuristic model is presented that contrasts the generation of language-based representations with imagery and offers an account of their differing effects on emotion, beliefs and behavior. (4) Finally, based on the foregoing review, we discuss the role of imagery in maintaining emotional disorders, and its uses in psychological treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Attention bias modification treatment: a meta-analysis toward the establishment of novel treatment for anxiety.

              Attention Bias Modification Treatment (ABMT) is a newly emerging, promising treatment for anxiety disorders. Although recent randomized control trials (RCTs) suggest that ABMT reduces anxiety, therapeutic effects have not been summarized quantitatively. Standard meta-analytic procedures were used to summarize the effect of ABMT on anxiety. With MEDLINE, January 1995 to February 2010, we identified RCTs comparing the effects on anxiety of ABMT and quantified effect sizes with Hedge's d. Twelve studies met inclusion criteria, including 467 participants from 10 publications. Attention Bias Modification Treatment produced significantly greater reductions in anxiety than control training, with a medium effect (d = .51 [corrected] (p < .001). Age and gender did not moderate the effect of ABMT on anxiety, whereas several characteristics of the ABMT training did. Attention Bias Modification Treatment shows promise as a novel treatment for anxiety. Additional RCTs are needed to fully evaluate the degree to which these findings replicate and apply to patients. Future work should consider the precise role for ABMT in the broader anxiety-disorder therapeutic armamentarium. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                m.d.telman@vu.nl
                +44-1865-271375 , jennifer.lau@psy.ox.ac.uk
                Journal
                Child Psychiatry Hum Dev
                Child Psychiatry Hum Dev
                Child Psychiatry and Human Development
                Springer US (Boston )
                0009-398X
                1573-3327
                31 May 2013
                31 May 2013
                2013
                : 44
                : 602-611
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 4AU UK
                [ ]Department of Clinical Child and Family Studies, Faculty of Psychology and Education, VU University Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [ ]MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK
                Article
                386
                10.1007/s10578-013-0386-6
                3764320
                23722473
                317f92dd-c1e0-4efd-a377-ad1f0bba7ba8
                © The Author(s) 2013

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

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                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                cognitive bias modification,interpretational style,adolescence,anxiety,stress reactivity

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