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      Clinical description of human bocavirus viremia in children with LRTI, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

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          Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a major etiology of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in young children. We tested 149 patients admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University with diagnosis of LRTI. Viremia caused by the different studied viruses was detected in 31.5% of the total cases by Real-time Polymerase chain reaction. We report five patients who were positive for HBoV in serum samples. Clinical presentation ranged from mild to severe disease as one of them required admission to intensive care unit. Wheezing was a striking feature in most of our patients, but fever was not a consistent finding.

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          Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples.

          The identification of new virus species is a key issue for the study of infectious disease but is technically very difficult. We developed a system for large-scale molecular virus screening of clinical samples based on host DNA depletion, random PCR amplification, large-scale sequencing, and bioinformatics. The technology was applied to pooled human respiratory tract samples. The first experiments detected seven human virus species without the use of any specific reagent. Among the detected viruses were one coronavirus and one parvovirus, both of which were at that time uncharacterized. The parvovirus, provisionally named human bocavirus, was in a retrospective clinical study detected in 17 additional patients and associated with lower respiratory tract infections in children. The molecular virus screening procedure provides a general culture-independent solution to the problem of detecting unknown virus species in single or pooled samples. We suggest that a systematic exploration of the viruses that infect humans, "the human virome," can be initiated.
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            Human Bocavirus and Acute Wheezing in Children

            Abstract Background . Human bocavirus is a newly discovered parvovirus. It has been detected primarily in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection, but its occurrence, clinical profile, and role as a causative agent of respiratory tract disease are not clear. Methods . We investigated the presence of human bocavirus by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens and selected serum samples obtained from 259 children (median age, 1.6 years) who had been hospitalized for acute expiratory wheezing. The samples were analyzed for 16 respiratory viruses by polymerase chain reaction, virus culture, antigen detection, and serological assays. Results . At least 1 potential etiologic agent was detected in 95% of children, and >1 agent was detected in 34% of children. Human bocavirus was detected in 49 children (19%). A large proportion of the cases were mixed infections with other viruses, but human bocavirus was the only virus detected in 12 children (5%). High viral loads of human bocavirus were noted mainly in the absence of other viral agents, suggesting a causative role for acute wheezing. In addition, infections that had uncertain clinical relevance and low viral loads were prevalent. Human bocavirus DNA was frequently detected in serum specimens obtained from patients with acute wheezing, suggesting systemic infection. Conclusions . Human bocavirus is prevalent among children with acute wheezing and can cause systemic infection. Results suggest a model for bocavirus infection in which high viral loads are potentially associated with respiratory symptoms and low viral loads indicate asymptomatic shedding. Therefore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis may be important for additional studies of human bocavirus.
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              Global and regional burden of hospital admissions for severe acute lower respiratory infections in young children in 2010: a systematic analysis

              Summary Background The annual number of hospital admissions and in-hospital deaths due to severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in young children worldwide is unknown. We aimed to estimate the incidence of admissions and deaths for such infections in children younger than 5 years in 2010. Methods We estimated the incidence of admissions for severe and very severe ALRI in children younger than 5 years, stratified by age and region, with data from a systematic review of studies published between Jan 1, 1990, and March 31, 2012, and from 28 unpublished population-based studies. We applied these incidence estimates to population estimates for 2010, to calculate the global and regional burden in children admitted with severe ALRI in that year. We estimated in-hospital mortality due to severe and very severe ALRI by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from hospital-based studies. Findings We identified 89 eligible studies and estimated that in 2010, 11·9 million (95% CI 10·3–13·9 million) episodes of severe and 3·0 million (2·1–4·2 million) episodes of very severe ALRI resulted in hospital admissions in young children worldwide. Incidence was higher in boys than in girls, the sex disparity being greatest in South Asian studies. On the basis of data from 37 hospital studies reporting case fatality ratios for severe ALRI, we estimated that roughly 265 000 (95% CI 160 000–450 000) in-hospital deaths took place in young children, with 99% of these deaths in developing countries. Therefore, the data suggest that although 62% of children with severe ALRI are treated in hospitals, 81% of deaths happen outside hospitals. Interpretation Severe ALRI is a substantial burden on health services worldwide and a major cause of hospital referral and admission in young children. Improved hospital access and reduced inequities, such as those related to sex and rural status, could substantially decrease mortality related to such infection. Community-based management of severe disease could be an important complementary strategy to reduce pneumonia mortality and health inequities. Funding WHO.

                Author and article information

                Ann Thorac Med
                Ann Thorac Med
                Annals of Thoracic Medicine
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Apr-Jun 2015
                : 10
                : 2
                : 146-149
                Department of Pediatrics, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
                [1 ] Department of Microbiology, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
                [2 ] Prince Mohammed Bin Fahd Center for Research and Consultation Studies, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
                [3 ] Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [4 ] Department of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Dalal Khaled Bubshait, Department of Pediatrics, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: dkbubshait@
                Copyright: © Annals of Thoracic Medicine

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Case Report

                Respiratory medicine

                viremia, children, saudi arabia


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