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      Endoscopic Approach for Major Complications of Bariatric Surgery

      Clinical Endoscopy

      Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

      Bariatric surgery, Complication, Endoscopic therapy

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          Abstract

          As lifestyle and diet patterns have become westernized in East Asia, the prevalence of obesity has rapidly increased. Bariatric surgeries, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), are considered the first-line treatment option in patients with severe obesity. However, postoperative complications have increased and the proper management of these complications, including the use of endoscopic procedures, has become important. The most serious complications, such as leaks and fistulas, can be treated with endoscopic stent placement and injection of fibrin glue, and a novel full-thickness closure over-the-scope clip (OTSC) has been used for treatment of postoperative leaks. Stricture at the gastrojejunal (GJ) anastomosis site after RYGB or incisura angularis in SG can be managed using stents or endoscopic balloon dilation. Dilation of the GJ anastomosis or gastric pouch may lead to failure of weight loss, and the use of endoscopic sclerotherapy, novel endoscopic suturing devices, and OTSCs have been attempted. Intragastric migration of the gastric band can be successfully treated using various endoscopic tools. Endoscopy plays a pivotal role in the management of post-bariatric complications, and close cooperation between endoscopists and bariatric surgeons may further increase the success rate of endoscopic procedures.

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          Most cited references 92

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          Sleeve gastrectomy and the risk of leak: a systematic analysis of 4,888 patients.

          Sleeve gastrectomy has become a popular stand-alone bariatric procedure with comparable weight loss and resolution of comorbidities to that of laparoscopic gastric bypass. The simplicity of the procedure and the decreased long-term risk profile make this surgery more appealing. Nonetheless, the ever present risk of a staple-line leak is still of great concern and needs further investigation. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE database plus manual reference checks of articles published on laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity and its complications was completed. Keywords used in the search were "sleeve gastrectomy" OR "gastric sleeve" AND "leak." We analyzed 29 publications, including 4,888 patients. We analyzed the frequency of leak after sleeve gastrectomy and its associated risks of causation. The risk of leak after sleeve gastrectomy in all comers was 2.4%. This risk was 2.9% in the super-obese [body mass index (BMI) > 50 kg/m(2)] and 2.2% for BMI < 50 kg/m(2). Staple height and use of buttressing material did not affect leak rate. The use of a size 40-Fr or greater bougie was associated with a leak rate of 0.6% compared with those who used smaller sizes whose leak rate was 2.8%. Leaks were found at the proximal third of the stomach in 89% of cases. Most leaks were diagnosed after discharge. Endoscopic management is a viable option for leaks and was documented in 11% of cases as successful. Sleeve gastrectomy has become an important surgical option for the treatment of the ever growing morbidly obese population. The risk of leak is low at 2.4%. Attention to detail specifically at the esophagogastric junction cannot be stressed enough. Careful patient selection (BMI < 50 kg/m(2)) and adopting the use of a 40-Fr or larger bougie may decrease the risk of leak. Vigilant follow-up during the first 30 days is critical to avoid catastrophe, because most leaks will happen after patient discharge.
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            Complications after laparoscopic gastric bypass: a review of 3464 cases.

            The type and frequency of complications after open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) have changed with the development of laparoscopic technique. The number of laparoscopic GBP cases performed in the United States has increased dramatically during the past several years. We compared the type and frequency of complications after laparoscopic and open GBP. We searched MEDLINE from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 2002, using the keywords morbid obesity, laparoscopy, bariatric surgery, and gastric bypass. We selected studies on laparoscopic or open GBP with more than 50 patients and published in the English language for analysis. We excluded studies with reoperative Roux-en-Y GBP cases or other bariatric procedures. The type and frequency of postoperative complications were recorded from each study. We used chi2 and Fisher exact tests to determine statistical significance. Ten laparoscopic GBP studies with 3464 patients and 8 open GBP studies with 2771 patients were considered. The mean of the reported average age for patients undergoing laparoscopic GBP was 41 years compared with 43 years for open GBP. The mean percentages of female patients were 87% for laparoscopic GBP and 82% for open GBP; the mean reported average body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), 48.7 and 49.5, respectively. Compared with open GBP, laparoscopic GBP was associated with a decrease in the frequency of iatrogenic splenectomy, wound infection, incisional hernia, and mortality; however, there was an increase in the frequency of early and late bowel obstruction, gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage, and stomal stenosis. There were no significant differences in the frequency of anastomotic leak, pulmonary embolism, or pneumonia. The type and frequency of postoperative complications after laparoscopic and open GBP are different. Certain complications increase with laparoscopic GBP, probably owing to the learning curve of this complex procedure, whereas other complications decrease because of the advantages of the smaller access incision.
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              Long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery: a National Institutes of Health symposium.

              The clinical evidence base demonstrating bariatric surgery's health benefits is much larger than it was when the National Institutes of Health last held a consensus panel in 1991. Still, it remains unclear whether ongoing studies will address critical questions about long-term complication rates and the sustainability of weight loss and comorbidity control.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Endosc
                Clin Endosc
                CE
                Clinical Endoscopy
                Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
                2234-2400
                2234-2443
                January 2017
                23 December 2016
                : 50
                : 1
                : 31-41
                Affiliations
                Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Moon Kyung Joo, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Guro Hospital, 148 Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul 08308, Korea Tel: +82-2-2626-3007, Fax: +82-2-2626-1038, E-mail: latyrx@ 123456naver.com
                Article
                ce-2016-140
                10.5946/ce.2016.140
                5299989
                28008162
                Copyright © 2017 Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Focused Review Series: Roles of Bariatric Endoscopy in Obesity Treatment

                Radiology & Imaging

                endoscopic therapy, complication, bariatric surgery

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