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      Melatonin receptor stimulation by agomelatine prevents Aβ-induced tau phosphorylation and oxidative damage in PC12 cells

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          As a novel antidepressant drug, agomelatine has good therapeutic effect on the mood disorder and insomnia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent studies have shown the neuroprotective function of agomelatine, including anti-oxidative and anti-apoptosis effect. However, it remains unclear whether agomelatine exerts neuroprotection in AD. Thus, the neuroprotective effect of agomelatine against amyloid beta 25–35 (Aβ 25–35)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells was evaluated in this study.


          The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), LDH, and ROS was investigated to evaluate oxidative damage. The expression of P-tau, tau, PTEN, P-Akt, Akt, P-GSK3β, and GSK3β proteins was assessed by Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that Aβ 25–35 significantly increased the content of MDA, LDH, and ROS. Meanwhile, Aβ 25–35 upregulated the expression of P-tau and PTEN as well as downregulated P-Akt and P-GSK3β expression. These effects could be blocked by agomelatine pretreatment. Furthermore, luzindole, the melatonin receptor (MT) antagonist, could reverse the neuroprotective effect of agomelatine.


          The results demonstrated that antidepressant agomelatine might prevent the tau protein phosphorylation and oxidative damage induced by Aβ 25–35 in PC12 cells by activating MT-PTEN/Akt/GSK3β signaling. This study provided a novel therapeutic target for AD in the future.

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          Most cited references 40

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          The high-affinity HSP90-CHIP complex recognizes and selectively degrades phosphorylated tau client proteins.

          A primary pathologic component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau). Expediting the removal of these p-tau species may be a relevant therapeutic strategy. Here we report that inhibition of Hsp90 led to decreases in p-tau levels independent of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activation. A critical mediator of this mechanism was carboxy terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), a tau ubiquitin ligase. Cochaperones were also involved in Hsp90-mediated removal of p-tau, while those of the mature Hsp90 refolding complex prevented this effect. This is the first demonstration to our knowledge that blockade of the refolding pathway promotes p-tau turnover through degradation. We also show that peripheral administration of a novel Hsp90 inhibitor promoted selective decreases in p-tau species in a mouse model of tauopathy, further suggesting a central role for the Hsp90 complex in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. When taken in the context of known high-affinity Hsp90 complexes in affected regions of the AD brain, these data implicate a central role for Hsp90 in the development of AD and other tauopathies and may provide a rationale for the development of novel Hsp90-based therapeutic strategies.
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            The importance of PTEN in cellular function is underscored by the frequency of its deregulation in cancer. PTEN tumor-suppressor activity depends largely on its lipid phosphatase activity, which opposes PI3K/AKT activation. As such, PTEN regulates many cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, energy metabolism, cellular architecture, and motility. More than a decade of research has expanded our knowledge about how PTEN is controlled at the transcriptional level as well as by numerous posttranscriptional modifications that regulate its enzymatic activity, protein stability, and cellular location. Although the role of PTEN in cancers has long been appreciated, it is also emerging as an important factor in other diseases, such as diabetes and autism spectrum disorders. Our understanding of PTEN function and regulation will hopefully translate into improved prognosis and treatment for patients suffering from these ailments.
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              Oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease: a possibility for prevention.

              Oxidative stress is at the forefront of Alzheimer disease (AD) research. While its implications in the characteristic neurodegeneration of AD are vast, the most important aspect is that it seems increasingly apparent that oxidative stress is in fact a primary progenitor of the disease, and not merely an epiphenomenon. Moreover, evidence indicates that a long "dormant period" of gradual oxidative damage accumulation precedes and actually leads to the seemingly sudden appearance of clinical and pathological AD symptoms, including amyloid-beta deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, metabolic dysfunction, and cognitive decline. These findings provide important insights into the development of potential treatment regimens and even allude to the possibility of a preventative cure. In this review, we elaborate on the dynamic role of oxidative stress in AD and present corresponding treatment strategies that are currently under investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                21 January 2019
                : 13
                : 387-396
                Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, China, hbzyy8@ 123456126.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Heng-bing Zu, Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, No 1508 Longhang Road, Jinshan District, Shanghai 201508, China, Tel +86 21 3418 9990 ext 5490, Fax +86 21 3418 9990, Email hbzyy8@ 123456126.com
                © 2019 Yao et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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