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      Pathogenicity and virulence of Staphylococcus aureus

      review-article
      , ,
      Virulence
      Taylor & Francis
      Staphylococcus aureus, mrsa, immune evasion, neutrophils, biofilm, quorum-sensing, virulence, infection, toxins

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          ABSTRACT

          Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent worldwide causes of morbidity and mortality due to an infectious agent. This pathogen can cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from moderately severe skin infections to fatal pneumonia and sepsis. Treatment of S. aureus infections is complicated by antibiotic resistance and a working vaccine is not available. There has been ongoing and increasing interest in the extraordinarily high number of toxins and other virulence determinants that S. aureus produces and how they impact disease. In this review, we will give an overview of how S. aureus initiates and maintains infection and discuss the main determinants involved. A more in-depth understanding of the function and contribution of S. aureus virulence determinants to S. aureus infection will enable us to develop anti-virulence strategies to counteract the lack of an anti- S. aureus vaccine and the ever-increasing shortage of working antibiotics against this important pathogen.

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          Most cited references281

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          Neutrophil recruitment and function in health and inflammation.

          Neutrophils have traditionally been thought of as simple foot soldiers of the innate immune system with a restricted set of pro-inflammatory functions. More recently, it has become apparent that neutrophils are, in fact, complex cells capable of a vast array of specialized functions. Although neutrophils are undoubtedly major effectors of acute inflammation, several lines of evidence indicate that they also contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions and adaptive immune responses. Here, we discuss the key features of the life of a neutrophil, from its release from bone marrow to its death. We discuss the possible existence of different neutrophil subsets and their putative anti-inflammatory roles. We focus on how neutrophils are recruited to infected or injured tissues and describe differences in neutrophil recruitment between different tissues. Finally, we explain the mechanisms that are used by neutrophils to promote protective or pathological immune responses at different sites.
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            Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

            Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical infections. It is a leading cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis as well as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device-related infections. This review comprehensively covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management of each of these clinical entities. The past 2 decades have witnessed two clear shifts in the epidemiology of S. aureus infections: first, a growing number of health care-associated infections, particularly seen in infective endocarditis and prosthetic device infections, and second, an epidemic of community-associated skin and soft tissue infections driven by strains with certain virulence factors and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. In reviewing the literature to support management strategies for these clinical manifestations, we also highlight the paucity of high-quality evidence for many key clinical questions.
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              Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States.

              As the epidemiology of infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) changes, accurate information on the scope and magnitude of MRSA infections in the US population is needed. To describe the incidence and distribution of invasive MRSA disease in 9 US communities and to estimate the burden of invasive MRSA infections in the United States in 2005. Active, population-based surveillance for invasive MRSA in 9 sites participating in the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs)/Emerging Infections Program Network from July 2004 through December 2005. Reports of MRSA were investigated and classified as either health care-associated (either hospital-onset or community-onset) or community-associated (patients without established health care risk factors for MRSA). Incidence rates and estimated number of invasive MRSA infections and in-hospital deaths among patients with MRSA in the United States in 2005; interval estimates of incidence excluding 1 site that appeared to be an outlier with the highest incidence; molecular characterization of infecting strains. There were 8987 observed cases of invasive MRSA reported during the surveillance period. Most MRSA infections were health care-associated: 5250 (58.4%) were community-onset infections, 2389 (26.6%) were hospital-onset infections; 1234 (13.7%) were community-associated infections, and 114 (1.3%) could not be classified. In 2005, the standardized incidence rate of invasive MRSA was 31.8 per 100,000 (interval estimate, 24.4-35.2). Incidence rates were highest among persons 65 years and older (127.7 per 100,000; interval estimate, 92.6-156.9), blacks (66.5 per 100,000; interval estimate, 43.5-63.1), and males (37.5 per 100,000; interval estimate, 26.8-39.5). There were 1598 in-hospital deaths among patients with MRSA infection during the surveillance period. In 2005, the standardized mortality rate was 6.3 per 100,000 (interval estimate, 3.3-7.5). Molecular testing identified strains historically associated with community-associated disease outbreaks recovered from cultures in both hospital-onset and community-onset health care-associated infections in all surveillance areas. Invasive MRSA infection affects certain populations disproportionately. It is a major public health problem primarily related to health care but no longer confined to intensive care units, acute care hospitals, or any health care institution.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Virulence
                Virulence
                Virulence
                Taylor & Francis
                2150-5594
                2150-5608
                31 January 2021
                2021
                31 January 2021
                : 12
                : 1
                : 547-569
                Affiliations
                [0001]Pathogen Molecular Genetics Section, Laboratory of Bacteriology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, U.S. National Institutes of Health; , Bethesda, Maryland, USA
                Author notes
                CONTACT Michael Otto motto@ 123456niaid.nih.gov
                Article
                1878688
                10.1080/21505594.2021.1878688
                7872022
                33522395
                31b2a3cc-bc99-44d5-a69b-dd844dd84a2b
                © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 283, Pages: 23
                Categories
                Review
                Review

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                staphylococcus aureus,mrsa,immune evasion,neutrophils,biofilm,quorum-sensing,virulence,infection,toxins

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