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      Impaired Gastric Hormone Regulation of Osteoblasts and Lysyl Oxidase Drives Bone Disease in Diabetes Mellitus

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          ABSTRACT

          Diabetic bone disease is a complication of type I and type II diabetes, both of which are increasing in the United States and elsewhere. Increased hip and foot fracture rates do not correlate well with changes in bone mineral density (BMD), whereas studies support the importance of collagen structure to bone strength. Extracellular lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of hydroxylysine and lysine residues in collagens resulting in aldehydes that subsequently form critically important biosynthetic crosslinks that stabilize functional collagens. Although LOX‐dependent biosynthetic crosslinks in bone collagen are deficient in diabetic bone, the expression and regulation of bone LOXs in diabetes have not been comprehensively studied. Here, we found that LOX is profoundly downregulated in bone in diabetes. Moreover, we have identified a novel metabolic regulatory relationship that is dysregulated in diabetes using mouse models. Data indicate that the incretin (gastric hormone) known as glucose‐dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) that is anabolic to osteoblasts strongly upregulates LOX, and that this regulation is disrupted in the streptozotocin‐induced model of diabetes in mice. In vivo and in vitro studies support that diabetes results in elevated circulating peripheral dopamine, likely also derived from the gut, and is responsible for blocking GIP signaling and LOX levels in osteoblasts. Moreover, peripheral administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist amisulpride to diabetic mice restored trabecular bone structure to near normal and partially reversed downregulation of LOX. Taken together our data identifies a novel metabolic relationship between the gut‐derived hormone GIP and bone‐derived LOX, and points to the importance of LOX dysregulation in the pathology of diabetic bone disease. © 2019 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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          Most cited references 54

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          The biology of incretin hormones.

          Gut peptides, exemplified by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted in a nutrient-dependent manner and stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Both GIP and GLP-1 also promote beta cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, leading to expansion of beta cell mass. GLP-1, but not GIP, controls glycemia via additional actions on glucose sensors, inhibition of gastric emptying, food intake and glucagon secretion. Furthermore, GLP-1, unlike GIP, potently stimulates insulin secretion and reduces blood glucose in human subjects with type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes current concepts of incretin action and highlights the potential therapeutic utility of GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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            Preserved incretin activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7-36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

            In type-2 diabetes, the overall incretin effect is reduced. The present investigation was designed to compare insulinotropic actions of exogenous incretin hormones (gastric inhibitory peptide [GIP] and glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1] [7-36 amide]) in nine type-2 diabetic patients (fasting plasma glucose 7.8 mmol/liter; hemoglobin A1c 6.3 +/- 0.6%) and in nine age- and weight-matched normal subjects. Synthetic human GIP (0.8 and 2.4 pmol/kg.min over 1 h each), GLP-1 [7-36 amide] (0.4 and 1.2 pmol/kg.min over 1 h each), and placebo were administered under hyperglycemic clamp conditions (8.75 mmol/liter) in separate experiments. Plasma GIP and GLP-1 [7-36 amide] concentrations (radioimmunoassay) were comparable to those after oral glucose with the low, and clearly supraphysiological with the high infusion rates. Both GIP and GLP-1 [7-36 amide] dose-dependently augmented insulin secretion (insulin, C-peptide) in both groups (P < 0.05). With GIP, the maximum effect in type-2 diabetic patients was significantly lower (by 54%; P < 0.05) than in normal subjects. With GLP-1 [7-36 amide] type-2 diabetic patients reached 71% of the increments in C-peptide of normal subjects (difference not significant). Glucagon was lowered during hyperglycemic clamps in normal subjects, but not in type-2 diabetic patients, and further by GLP-1 [7-36 amide] in both groups (P < 0.05), but not by GIP. In conclusion, in mild type-2 diabetes, GLP-1 [7-36 amide], in contrast to GIP, retains much of its insulinotropic activity. It also lowers glucagon concentrations.
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              Effects of obesity on bone metabolism

               Jay Cao (2011)
              Obesity is traditionally viewed to be beneficial to bone health because of well-established positive effect of mechanical loading conferred by body weight on bone formation, despite being a risk factor for many other chronic health disorders. Although body mass has a positive effect on bone formation, whether the mass derived from an obesity condition or excessive fat accumulation is beneficial to bone remains controversial. The underline pathophysiological relationship between obesity and bone is complex and continues to be an active research area. Recent data from epidemiological and animal studies strongly support that fat accumulation is detrimental to bone mass. To our knowledge, obesity possibly affects bone metabolism through several mechanisms. Because both adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from a common multipotential mesenchymal stem cell, obesity may increase adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation while decrease osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. The increased circulating and tissue proinflammatory cytokines in obesity may promote osteoclast activity and bone resorption through modifying the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK)/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway. Furthermore, the excessive secretion of leptin and/or decreased production of adiponectin by adipocytes in obesity may either directly affect bone formation or indirectly affect bone resorption through up-regulated proinflammatory cytokine production. Finally, high-fat intake may interfere with intestinal calcium absorption and therefore decrease calcium availability for bone formation. Unraveling the relationship between fat and bone metabolism at molecular level may help us to develop therapeutic agents to prevent or treat both obesity and osteoporosis. Obesity, defined as having a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, is a condition in which excessive body fat accumulates to a degree that adversely affects health [1]. The rates of obesity rates have doubled since 1980 [2] and as of 2007, 33% of men and 35% of women in the US are obese [3]. Obesity is positively associated to many chronic disorders such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain cancers [4-6]. It is estimated that the direct medical cost associated with obesity in the United States is ~$100 billion per year [7]. Bone mass and strength decrease during adulthood, especially in women after menopause [8]. These changes can culminate in osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration resulting in increased bone fracture risk. It is estimated that there are about 10 million Americans over the age of 50 who have osteoporosis while another 34 million people are at risk of developing the disease [9]. In 2001, osteoporosis alone accounted for some $17 billion in direct annual healthcare expenditure. Several lines of evidence suggest that obesity and bone metabolism are interrelated. First, both osteoblasts (bone forming cells) and adipocytes (energy storing cells) are derived from a common mesenchymal stem cell [10] and agents inhibiting adipogenesis stimulated osteoblast differentiation [11-13] and vice versa, those inhibiting osteoblastogenesis increased adipogenesis [14]. Second, decreased bone marrow osteoblastogenesis with aging is usually accompanied with increased marrow adipogenesis [15,16]. Third, chronic use of steroid hormone, such as glucocorticoid, results in obesity accompanied by rapid bone loss [17,18]. Fourth, both obesity and osteoporosis are associated with elevated oxidative stress and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines [19,20]. At present, the mechanisms for the effects of obesity on bone metabolism are not well defined and will be the focus of this review.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                trackman@bu.edu
                Journal
                JBMR Plus
                JBMR Plus
                10.1002/(ISSN)2473-4039
                JBM4
                JBMR Plus
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2473-4039
                07 August 2019
                October 2019
                : 3
                : 10 ( doiID: 10.1002/jbm4.v3.10 )
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology Boston MA USA
                [ 2 ] Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Boston MA USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Address correspondence to: Philip C Trackman, PhD, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Boston University, Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, 700 Albany Street, W‐201, Boston, MA 02118, USA. Email: trackman@ 123456bu.edu

                Article
                JBM410212
                10.1002/jbm4.10212
                6820454
                © 2019 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Pages: 16, Words: 12244
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
                Award ID: AR066261
                Funded by: National Eye Institute
                Award ID: EY025528
                Funded by: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
                Award ID: F31DE026685
                Award ID: R21DE023973
                Categories
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                jbm410212
                October 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.7.0 mode:remove_FC converted:30.10.2019

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