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      The mechanism of CCN1-enhanced retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy through PI3K/Akt–VEGF signaling pathway

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          Abstract

          Background

          CCN1 (also called Cyr 61) is an extracellular matrix signaling molecule that has been implicated in neovascularization through its interactions with several endothelial integrin receptors. The roles of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in angiogenesis are well described. The aim of this study was to investigate the signal transduction mechanism of CCN1–PI3K/Akt–VEGF in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and the effects of CCN1 knockdown on ROP.

          Methods

          The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was established in C57BL/6J mice exposed to a high concentration of oxygen. Retinas were obtained from the normoxia, OIR, OIR control (treated with scramble siRNA) and OIR treated (with CCN1 siRNA) groups. Retinal neovascularization (RNV) was qualitatively analyzed with ADPase staining and quantitatively analyzed by counting neovascular endothelial cell nuclei at postnatal day 17 when RNV reached a peak. mRNA level and protein expression of CCN1, p-Akt, and VEGF were measured by real-time PCR and Western blotting, and located with immunohistochemistry.

          Results

          CCN1 depletion resulted in less neovascularization clock hour scores in the number of preretinal neovascular cells compared with the OIR treated group (1.28±0.83 versus 4.80±0.82; and 7.12±2.50 versus 23.25±2.35, respectively, both P<0.05). Furthermore, CCN1, p-Akt and VEGF mRNA, and protein were significantly expressed in the retina of the OIR and OIR control groups. Intravitreal injection of CCN1 siRNA significantly reduced PI3K/Akt–VEGF pathway expression of the OIR mouse model (all P<0.05). CCN1 siRNA significantly enhanced the avascular area and avascular diameter of OIR model ( P<0.05). CCN1 siRNA decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α significantly compared to the OIR group ( P<0.05).

          Conclusion

          These results suggest that CCN1 plays an important role in RNV via the PI3K/Akt–VEGF signaling pathway. CCN1 may be a potential target for the prevention and treatment of ROP.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the mouse.

          To develop oxygen-induced retinopathy in the mouse with reproducible and quantifiable proliferative retinal neovascularization suitable for examining pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention for retinal neovascularization in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and other vasculopathologies. One-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 75% oxygen for 5 days and then to room air. A novel fluorescein-dextran perfusion method has been developed to assess the vascular pattern. The proliferative neovascular response was quantified by counting the nuclei of new vessels extending from the retina into the vitreous in 6 microns sagittal cross-sections. Cross-sections were also stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Fluorescein-dextran angiography delineated the entire vascular pattern, including neovascular tufts in flat-mounted retinas. Hyperoxia-induced neovascularization occurred at the junction between the vascularized and avascular retina in the mid-periphery. Retinal neovascularization occurred in all the pups between postnatal day 17 and postnatal day 21. There was a mean of 89 neovascular nuclei per cross-section of 9 eyes in hyperoxia compared to less than 1 nucleus per cross-section of 8 eyes in the normoxia control (P < 0.0001). Proliferative vessels were not associated with GFAP-positive astrocyte processes. The authors have described a reproducible and quantifiable mouse model of oxygen-induced retinal neovascularization that should prove useful for the study of pathogenesis of retinal neovascularization as well as for the study of medical intervention for ROP and other retinal angiopathies.
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            Efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab for stage 3+ retinopathy of prematurity.

             ,  Alice Chuang,  H Hittner (2011)
            Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Peripheral retinal ablation with conventional (confluent) laser therapy is destructive, causes complications, and does not prevent all vision loss, especially in cases of retinopathy of prematurity affecting zone I of the eye. Case series in which patients were treated with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors suggest that these agents may be useful in treating retinopathy of prematurity. We conducted a prospective, controlled, randomized, stratified, multicenter trial to assess intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy for zone I or zone II posterior stage 3+ (i.e., stage 3 with plus disease) retinopathy of prematurity. Infants were randomly assigned to receive intravitreal bevacizumab (0.625 mg in 0.025 ml of solution) or conventional laser therapy, bilaterally. The primary ocular outcome was recurrence of retinopathy of prematurity in one or both eyes requiring retreatment before 54 weeks' postmenstrual age. We enrolled 150 infants (total sample of 300 eyes); 143 infants survived to 54 weeks' postmenstrual age, and the 7 infants who died were not included in the primary-outcome analyses. Retinopathy of prematurity recurred in 4 infants in the bevacizumab group (6 of 140 eyes [4%]) and 19 infants in the laser-therapy group (32 of 146 eyes [22%], P=0.002). A significant treatment effect was found for zone I retinopathy of prematurity (P=0.003) but not for zone II disease (P=0.27). Intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy, as compared with conventional laser therapy, in infants with stage 3+ retinopathy of prematurity showed a significant benefit for zone I but not zone II disease. Development of peripheral retinal vessels continued after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab, but conventional laser therapy led to permanent destruction of the peripheral retina. This trial was too small to assess safety. (Funded by Research to Prevent Blindness and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00622726.).
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              CYR61, a product of a growth factor-inducible immediate early gene, promotes angiogenesis and tumor growth.

              CYR61 is a secreted, cysteine-rich, heparin-binding protein encoded by a growth factor-inducible immediate-early gene. Acting as an extracellular, matrix-associated signaling molecule, CYR61 promotes the adhesion of endothelial cells through interaction with the integrin alphaVbeta3 and augments growth factor-induced DNA synthesis in the same cell type. In this study, we show that purified CYR61 stimulates directed migration of human microvascular endothelial cells in culture through an alphaV beta3-dependent pathway and induces neovascularization in rat corneas. Both the chemotactic and angiogenic activities of CYR61 can be blocked by specific anti-CYR61 antibodies. Whereas most human tumor-derived cell lines tested express CYR61, the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line RF-1 does not. Expression of the CYR61 cDNA under the regulation of a constitutive promoter in RF-1 cells significantly enhances the tumorigenicity of these cells as measured by growth in immunodeficient mice, resulting in tumors that are larger and more vascularized than those produced by control RF-1 cells. Taken together, these results identify CYR61 as an angiogenic inducer that can promote tumor growth and vascularization; the results also suggest potential roles for CYR61 in physiologic and pathologic neovascularization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                30 April 2015
                : 9
                : 2463-2473
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Shengjing Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Graduate School, China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xiaolong Chen, Department of Ophthalmology, Shengjing Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Heping district, Sanhao Road 36, Shenyang 110004, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 189 4025 1892, Email chenxiaolongsy@ 123456yeah.net
                Article
                dddt-9-2463
                10.2147/DDDT.S79782
                4425238
                25995618
                © 2015 Di et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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