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      Improvement in Central Arterial Pressure Waveform during Hemodialysis Is Related to a Reduction in Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA) Levels

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          Abstract

          Background: Cardiovascular mortality is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Early arterial pressure wave reflections, reflecting arterial stiffness and the endogenous nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels predict mortality in HD patients. Therefore, we aimed to study changes in ADMA levels and central arterial pressure waveform during HD. Methods: Thirty-two chronic HD patients were studied before and after a HD session. In a subset of 22 patients without arrhythmias, pulse wave analysis was performed on radial artery (SphygmoCor). Augmentation index (AIx), defined as difference between the second and first systolic peak divided by central pulse pressure, was used as a measure of arterial stiffness. ADMA was measured in plasma with the ELISA technique. Homocysteine was measured in plasma using the EIA technique. Results: HD reduced both AIx (19%; p = 0.003) and ADMA levels (17%; p < 0.001). The magnitudes of changes in AIx and ADMA during HD were correlated (r = 0.44; p = 0.045). Mean arterial pressure change was not significant. HD reduced homocysteine levels, but homocysteine was not related to ADMA or AIx. Conclusion: The reduction in ADMA level seen after HD was associated with improvement in the central arterial pressure waveform, suggesting involvement of nitric oxide in the regulation of arterial stiffness in HD patients.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Clinical applications of arterial stiffness; definitions and reference values.

          Arterial stiffening is the most important cause of increasing systolic and pulse pressure, and for decreasing diastolic pressure beyond 40 years of age. Stiffening affects predominantly the aorta and proximal elastic arteries, and to a lesser degree the peripheral muscular arteries. While conceptually a Windkessel model is the simplest way to visualize the cushioning function of arteries, this is not useful clinically under changing conditions when effects of wave reflection become prominent. Many measures have been applied to quantify stiffness, but all are approximations only, on account of the nonhomogeneous structure of the arterial wall, its variability in different locations, at different levels of distending pressure, and with changes in smooth muscle tone. This article summarizes the methods and indices used to estimate arterial stiffness, and provides values from a survey of the literature, followed by recommendations of an international group of workers in the field who attended the First Consensus Conference on Arterial Stiffness, which was held in Paris during 2000, under the chairmanship of M.E. Safar and E.D. Frohlich.
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            Plasma concentration of asymmetrical dimethylarginine and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease: a prospective study

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              Effect of waiting time on renal transplant outcome.

              Numerous factors are known to impact on patient survival after renal transplantation. Recent studies have confirmed a survival advantage for renal transplant patients over those waiting on dialysis. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that longer waiting times are more deleterious than shorter waiting times, that is, to detect a "dose effect" for waiting time. We analyzed 73,103 primary adult renal transplants registered at the United States Renal Data System Registry from 1988 to 1997 for the primary endpoints of death with functioning graft and death-censored graft failure by Cox proportional hazard models. All models were corrected for donor and recipient demographics and other factors known to affect outcome after kidney transplantation. A longer waiting time on dialysis is a significant risk factor for death-censored graft survival and patient death with functioning graft after renal transplantation (P < 0.001 each). Relative to preemptive transplants, waiting times of 6 to 12 months, 12 to 24 months, 24 to 36, 36 to 48, and over 48 months confer a 21, 28, 41, 53, and 72% increase in mortality risk after transplantation, respectively. Relative to preemptive transplants, waiting times of 0 to 6 months, 6 to 12 months, 12 to 24 months, and over 24 months confer a 17, 37, 55, and 68% increase in risk for death-censored graft loss after transplantation, respectively. Longer waiting times on dialysis negatively impact on post-transplant graft and patient survival. These data strongly support the hypothesis that patients who reach end-stage renal disease should receive a renal transplant as early as possible in order to enhance their chances of long-term survival.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2007
                July 2007
                26 June 2007
                : 106
                : 4
                : c180-c186
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, and bAcute Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala, and cAstra Zeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden; dDepartment of Biochemistry, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia
                Article
                104429 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;106:c180–c186
                10.1159/000104429
                17596727
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 30, Pages: 1
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Homocysteine, Hemodialysis, Cardiovascular disease

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