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      Inhalation drug delivery devices: technology update

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          The pulmonary route of administration has proven to be effective in local and systemic delivery of miscellaneous drugs and biopharmaceuticals to treat pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. A successful pulmonary administration requires a harmonic interaction between the drug formulation, the inhaler device, and the patient. However, the biggest single problem that accounts for the lack of desired effect or adverse outcomes is the incorrect use of the device due to lack of training in how to use the device or how to coordinate actuation and aerosol inhalation. This review summarizes the structural and mechanical features of aerosol delivery devices with respect to mechanisms of aerosol generation, their use with different formulations, and their advantages and limitations. A technological update of the current state-of-the-art designs proposed to overcome current challenges of existing devices is also provided.

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          Most cited references 71

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          What the pulmonary specialist should know about the new inhalation therapies.

          A collaboration of multidisciplinary experts on the delivery of pharmaceutical aerosols was facilitated by the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM), in order to draw up a consensus statement with clear, up-to-date recommendations that enable the pulmonary physician to choose the type of aerosol delivery device that is most suitable for their patient. The focus of the consensus statement is the patient-use aspect of the aerosol delivery devices that are currently available. The subject was divided into different topics, which were in turn assigned to at least two experts. The authors searched the literature according to their own strategies, with no central literature review being performed. To achieve consensus, draft reports and recommendations were reviewed and voted on by the entire panel. Specific recommendations for use of the devices can be found throughout the statement. Healthcare providers should ensure that their patients can and will use these devices correctly. This requires that the clinician: is aware of the devices that are currently available to deliver the prescribed drugs; knows the various techniques that are appropriate for each device; is able to evaluate the patient's inhalation technique to be sure they are using the devices properly; and ensures that the inhalation method is appropriate for each patient.
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            Aerosol drug delivery: developments in device design and clinical use.

             M Dolovich,  R Dhand (2011)
            Aerosolised drugs are prescribed for use in a range of inhaler devices and systems. Delivering drugs by inhalation requires a formulation that can be successfully aerosolised and a delivery system that produces a useful aerosol of the drug; the particles or droplets need to be of sufficient size and mass to be carried to the distal lung or deposited on proximal airways to give rise to a therapeutic effect. Patients and caregivers must use and maintain these aerosol drug delivery devices correctly. In recent years, several technical innovations have led to aerosol drug delivery devices with efficient drug delivery and with novel features that take into account factors such as dose tracking, portability, materials of manufacture, breath actuation, the interface with the patient, combination therapies, and systemic delivery. These changes have improved performance in all four categories of devices: metered dose inhalers, spacers and holding chambers, dry powder inhalers, and nebulisers. Additionally, several therapies usually given by injection are now prescribed as aerosols for use in a range of drug delivery devices. In this Review, we discuss recent developments in the design and clinical use of aerosol devices over the past 10-15 years with an emphasis on the treatment of respiratory disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Pulmonary drug delivery. Part II: the role of inhalant delivery devices and drug formulations in therapeutic effectiveness of aerosolized medications.

              Research in the area of pulmonary drug delivery has gathered momentum in the last several years, with increased interest in using the lung as a means of delivering drugs systemically. Advances in device technology have led to the development of more efficient delivery systems capable of delivering larger doses and finer particles into the lung. As more efficient pulmonary delivery devices and sophisticated formulations become available, physicians and health professionals will have a choice of a wide variety of device and formulation combinations that will target specific cells or regions of the lung, avoid the lung's clearance mechanisms and be retained within the lung for longer periods. It is now recognized that it is not enough just to have inhalation therapy available for prescribing; physicians and other healthcare providers need a basic understanding of aerosol science, inhaled formulations, delivery devices, and bioequivalence of products to prescribe these therapies optimally.

                Author and article information

                Med Devices (Auckl)
                Med Devices (Auckl)
                Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
                Medical Devices (Auckland, N.Z.)
                Dove Medical Press
                12 February 2015
                : 8
                : 131-139
                Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Lucila Garcia-Contreras, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73126-0901, USA, Tel +1 405 271 6593 ext 47205, Fax +1 405 271 7505, Email lucila-garcia-contreras@
                © 2015 Ibrahim et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.



                dry powder inhaler, pulmonary delivery, asthma, nebulizers, metered dose inhaler


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