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      Potential economic impact assessment for cattle parasites in Mexico. Review Translated title: Evaluación del impacto económico potencial de los parásitos del ganado bovino en México. Revisión

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT Here, economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Mexico were estimated on an annual basis. The main factors taken into consideration for this assessment included the total number of animals at risk, potential detrimental effects of parasitism on milk production or weight gain, and records of condemnation on livestock byproducts. Estimates in US dollars (US$) were based on reported yield losses in untreated animals. These estimates reflect the major effects on cattle productivity of six parasites, or parasite group. The potential economic impact (US\(millions) was: gastrointestinal nematodes US\) 445.10; coccidia (Eimeria spp.) US\(23.78; liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) US\) 130.91; cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) US\(573.61; horn fly (Haematobia irritans) US\) 231.67; and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) US\(6.79. Overall, the yearly economic loss due to the six major parasites of cattle in Mexico was estimated to be US\) 1.41 billion. Considering that the national cattle herd registered in 2013 included 32.40 million head, the estimated yearly loss per head was US\(43.57. The limitations of some of the baseline studies used to develop these estimates, particularly when extrapolated from local situations to a national scale, are acknowledged. However, the general picture obtained from the present effort demonstrates the magnitude and importance of cattle parasitism in Mexico and the challenges to maximize profitability by the livestock industry without adapting sustainable and integrated parasite control strategies.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMEN Las pérdidas económicas causadas por parásitos del bovino en México se calcularon anualmente. Los principales factores considerados para esta evaluación incluyeron el número total de animales a riesgo, los posibles efectos dañinos del parasitismo sobre la producción de leche o ganancia de peso, y los decomisos de subproductos pecuarios. Las pérdidas económicas fueron estimadas en dólares americanos (US\)) y se basaron en las pérdidas del rendimiento productivo de animales no tratados. Estas estimaciones reflejan los principales efectos de seis parásitos o grupos de parásitos sobre la producción bovina. El impacto económico potencial (millones de dólares) fue: nematodos gastrointestinales US\(445.10; coccidias (Eimeria spp.) US\) 23.78; duelas del hígado (Fasciola hepatica) US\(130.91; garrapatas (Rhipicephalus microplus) US\) 573.61; mosca de los cuernos (Haematobia irritans) US\(231.67; y mosca de los establos (Stomoxys calcitrans) US\) 6.79. En general, las pérdidas anuales causadas por los seis principales parásitos del bovino en México se estimaron en US\(1.41 mil millones. Considerando que la población bovina nacional en 2013 fue de 32.40 millones de bovinos, la pérdida anual estimada fue de US\) 43.57 por animal. Se hace mención de las limitaciones que tienen el uso de algunas referencias para las estimaciones, particularmente cuando se extrapolan situaciones locales a una escala nacional. Sin embargo, el resultado general obtenido en este estudio demuestra la magnitud e importancia del parasitismo en el ganado de México y los desafíos para maximizar la rentabilidad de la industria ganadera sin recurrir al uso de estrategias de control integrado sustentable de parásitos.

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          Reassessment of the potential economic impact of cattle parasites in Brazil

          The profitability of livestock activities can be diminished significantly by the effects of parasites. Economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Brazil were estimated on an annual basis, considering the total number of animals at risk and the potential detrimental effects of parasitism on cattle productivity. Estimates in U.S. dollars (USD) were based on reported yield losses among untreated animals and reflected some of the effects of parasitic diseases. Relevant parasites that affect cattle productivity in Brazil, and their economic impact in USD billions include: gastrointestinal nematodes - $7.11; cattle tick (Rhipicephalus(Boophilus) microplus) - $3.24; horn fly (Haematobia irritans) - $2.56; cattle grub (Dermatobia hominis) - $0.38; New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) - $0.34; and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) - $0.34. The combined annual economic loss due to internal and external parasites of cattle in Brazil considered here was estimated to be at least USD 13.96 billion. These findings are discussed in the context of methodologies and research that are required in order to improve the accuracy of these economic impact assessments. This information needs to be taken into consideration when developing sustainable policies for mitigating the impact of parasitism on the profitability of Brazilian cattle producers.
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            A review of bovine anaplasmosis.

             P Aubry,  D Geale (2011)
            Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, is an infectious but non-contagious disease. It is spread through tick bites or by the mechanical transfer of fresh blood from infected to susceptible cattle from biting flies or by blood-contaminated fomites including needles, ear tagging, dehorning and castration equipment. Transplacental transmission of A. marginale may contribute to the epidemiology of bovine anaplasmosis in some regions. Bovine anaplasmosis occurs in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Cattle of all ages are susceptible to infection with A. marginale, but the severity of disease increases with age. Once cattle of any age become infected with A. marginale, they remain persistently infected carriers for life. Diagnosis of bovine anaplasmosis can be made by demonstration of A. marginale on stained blood smears from clinically infected animals during the acute phase of the disease, but it is not reliable for detecting infection in pre-symptomatic or carrier animals. In these instances, the infection is generally diagnosed by serologic demonstration of antibodies with confirmation by molecular detection methods. The susceptibility of wild ruminants to infection by A. marginale and the role of wild ruminants in the epidemiology of bovine anaplasmosis are incompletely known owing to lack of published research, lack of validation of diagnostic tests for these species and cross-reaction of Anaplasma spp. antibodies in serologic tests. Control measures for bovine anaplasmosis vary with geographical location and include maintenance of Anaplasma-free herds, vector control, administration of antibiotics and vaccination. © 2010 Crown in the right of Canada.
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              The productivity effects of cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) infestation on cattle, with particular reference to Bos indicus cattle and their crosses.

              In response to uncertainty among cattle producers in Australia regarding the need to treat Bos indicus and B. indicus crossbreeds, the scientific literature relating to the productivity effects of Boophilus microplus on cattle of all breeds was reviewed. Estimates of the mean effect of each engorging tick (damage coefficient, d) were made from a simple analysis of the reported data. On average, each engorging female tick is responsible for the loss of 1.37 +/- 0.25 g bodyweight in B. taurus cattle. The comparable value for B. taurusxB. indicus cattle is 1.18 +/- 0.21 g/engorging tick. These values were not statistically significantly different, indicating that if a threshold approach to tick control were taken, then the threshold number of standard ticks would be the same regardless of cattle genotype. No studies provided useable estimates of the effect of tick infestation on pure B. indicus cattle. An economic threshold for treatment, below which acaricide application is not beneficial, can be predicted, using known values for the cost of acaricide application and the price of beef. However, the application of a threshold approach to control has not been embraced by government advisers and runs contrary to the accepted principals of strategic control programs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                rmcp
                Revista mexicana de ciencias pecuarias
                Rev. mex. de cienc. pecuarias
                Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico )
                2007-1124
                2448-6698
                March 2017
                : 8
                : 1
                : 61-74
                Affiliations
                orgnameSAGARPA orgdiv1SENASICA México
                orgnameLaboratorios Virbac México S.A. de C.V. México
                Anápolis GO orgnameChampion Farmoquímico Ltda Brazil
                Mérida Yucatán orgnameUniversidad Autónoma de Yucatán orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia orgdiv2Campus de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias Mexico
                orgnameINIFAP orgdiv1Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Disciplinarias en Parasitología Veterinaria México
                Seropédica Rio de Janeiro orgnameUniversidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro Brazil
                orgnameUniversidad Veracruzana orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia Mexico
                Kerrville TX orgnameUSDA orgdiv1ARS orgdiv2Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory USA
                Article
                S2007-11242017000100061
                10.22319/rmcp.v8i1.4305

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 94, Pages: 14
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