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      Ovine haemonchosis: a review

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          Abstract

          Sheep farming is the backbone of a rural economy in developing countries, and haemonchosis is a major impediment in the way of its progress. Haemonchus contortus ( H. contortus) infection persists all over the world particularly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. Various review articles have been published to substantially cover one or more aspects of its morphology, prevalence, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, immune response, drug resistance, treatment, and control measure. The objective of this paper is to briefly review past and present information available in the aforementioned areas in one place to enable the readers to fully understand the problem from a broader perspective. H. contortus parasite harbours in abomasum of affected animal and feeds on its blood, producing mild to severe symptoms and even death in acute form. The parasite thus inflicts heavy production losses and is of economic importance. H. contortus has developed diverse characters over the years leading to limited success in the production of vaccines. Indiscriminate use of the anthelmintics has produced drug resistance against almost all conventional products. Efficacy of medicinal plants and non-conventional chemicals has been reported under controlled experiments; however, research on their adverse effects on growth and fertility is yet to be studied. Research on molecular tools for identification and introduction of resistant genes into the flock is also underway but still a long journey to find its field application. Crossbreeding may compromise the production traits of the existing flock. In given circumstances, a targeted selective treatment approach along with selective breeding, culling of more susceptible animals, and maintaining a good body condition score through the provision of a balanced diet remains a workable strategy to control haemonchosis in sheep.

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          Ror2 signaling regulates Golgi structure and transport through IFT20 for tumor invasiveness

          Signaling through the Ror2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes invadopodia formation for tumor invasion. Here, we identify intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20) as a new target of this signaling in tumors that lack primary cilia, and find that IFT20 mediates the ability of Ror2 signaling to induce the invasiveness of these tumors. We also find that IFT20 regulates the nucleation of Golgi-derived microtubules by affecting the GM130-AKAP450 complex, which promotes Golgi ribbon formation in achieving polarized secretion for cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, IFT20 promotes the efficiency of transport through the Golgi complex. These findings shed new insights into how Ror2 signaling promotes tumor invasiveness, and also advance the understanding of how Golgi structure and transport can be regulated.
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            FLOTAC: new multivalent techniques for qualitative and quantitative copromicroscopic diagnosis of parasites in animals and humans.

            Accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections is of pivotal importance for both individual patient management and population-based studies, such as drug efficacy trials and surveillance of parasitic disease control and elimination programs, in both human and veterinary public health. In this study, we present protocols for the FLOTAC basic, dual and double techniques, which are promising new multivalent, sensitive, accurate and precise methods for qualitative and quantitative copromicroscopic analysis. These various methods make use of the FLOTAC apparatus, a cylindrical device with two 5-ml flotation chambers, which allows up to 1 g of stool to be prepared for microscopic analysis. Compared with currently more widely used diagnostic methods for parasite detection in animals (e.g., McMaster and Wisconsin techniques) and humans (e.g., Kato-Katz and ether-based concentration techniques), the FLOTAC techniques show higher sensitivity and accuracy. All FLOTAC techniques can be performed on fresh fecal material as well as preserved stool samples, and require approximately 12-15 min of preparation time before microscopic analysis.
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              The genome and developmental transcriptome of the strongylid nematode Haemonchus contortus

              Background The barber's pole worm, Haemonchus contortus, is one of the most economically important parasites of small ruminants worldwide. Although this parasite can be controlled using anthelmintic drugs, resistance against most drugs in common use has become a widespread problem. We provide a draft of the genome and the transcriptomes of all key developmental stages of H. contortus to support biological and biotechnological research areas of this and related parasites. Results The draft genome of H. contortus is 320 Mb in size and encodes 23,610 protein-coding genes. On a fundamental level, we elucidate transcriptional alterations taking place throughout the life cycle, characterize the parasite's gene silencing machinery, and explore molecules involved in development, reproduction, host-parasite interactions, immunity, and disease. The secretome of H. contortus is particularly rich in peptidases linked to blood-feeding activity and interactions with host tissues, and a diverse array of molecules is involved in complex immune responses. On an applied level, we predict drug targets and identify vaccine molecules. Conclusions The draft genome and developmental transcriptome of H. contortus provide a major resource to the scientific community for a wide range of genomic, genetic, proteomic, metabolomic, evolutionary, biological, ecological, and epidemiological investigations, and a solid foundation for biotechnological outcomes, including new anthelmintics, vaccines and diagnostic tests. This first draft genome of any strongylid nematode paves the way for a rapid acceleration in our understanding of a wide range of socioeconomically important parasites of one of the largest nematode orders.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                zahidzizi@gmail.com
                Journal
                Trop Anim Health Prod
                Trop Anim Health Prod
                Tropical Animal Health and Production
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                0049-4747
                1573-7438
                20 November 2020
                2021
                : 53
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.11173.35, ISNI 0000 0001 0670 519X, Department of Zoology, , University of the Punjab, ; Lahore, Pakistan
                [2 ]Cattle Breeding Area, Sahiwal, Pakistan
                Article
                2439
                10.1007/s11250-020-02439-8
                7677603
                33216230
                3201aba5-1a1e-4d02-adc8-050a81d600a5
                © Springer Nature B.V. 2020

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                Categories
                Reviews
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Nature B.V. 2021

                Animal science & Zoology
                haemonchosis,sheep,barber’s pole worm,ovine
                Animal science & Zoology
                haemonchosis, sheep, barber’s pole worm, ovine

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