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      Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Hydrogels Containing Metal Ions and Metals/Metal Oxide Nanoparticles


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          Recently, the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has caused a serious health problem. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial materials to prevent or control infections caused by these pathogens. Polymer-based nanocomposite hydrogels are versatile materials as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial agents. Cross-linking of polymeric materials by metal ions or the combination of polymeric hydrogels with nanoparticles (metals and metal oxide) is a simple and effective approach for obtaining a multicomponent system with diverse functionalities. Several metals and metal oxides such as silver (Ag), gold (Au), zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO), titanium dioxide (TiO 2) and magnesium oxide (MgO) have been loaded into hydrogels for antimicrobial applications. The incorporation of metals and metal oxide nanoparticles into hydrogels not only enhances the antimicrobial activity of hydrogels, but also improve their mechanical characteristics. Herein, we summarize recent advances in hydrogels containing metal ions, metals and metal oxide nanoparticles with potential antimicrobial properties.

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          Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli.

          In this work we investigated the antibacterial properties of differently shaped silver nanoparticles against the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, both in liquid systems and on agar plates. Energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy images revealed considerable changes in the cell membranes upon treatment, resulting in cell death. Truncated triangular silver nanoplates with a {111} lattice plane as the basal plane displayed the strongest biocidal action, compared with spherical and rod-shaped nanoparticles and with Ag(+) (in the form of AgNO(3)). It is proposed that nanoscale size and the presence of a {111} plane combine to promote this biocidal property. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study on the bactericidal properties of silver nanoparticles of different shapes, and our results demonstrate that silver nanoparticles undergo a shape-dependent interaction with the gram-negative organism E. coli.
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            Review on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity and Toxicity Mechanism

            Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) has received significant interest worldwide particularly by the implementation of nanotechnology to synthesize particles in the nanometer region. Many microorganisms exist in the range from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers. ZnO-NPs exhibit attractive antibacterial properties due to increased specific surface area as the reduced particle size leading to enhanced particle surface reactivity. ZnO is a bio-safe material that possesses photo-oxidizing and photocatalysis impacts on chemical and biological species. This review covered ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity including testing methods, impact of UV illumination, ZnO particle properties (size, concentration, morphology, and defects), particle surface modification, and minimum inhibitory concentration. Particular emphasize was given to bactericidal and bacteriostatic mechanisms with focus on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), OH− (hydroxyl radicals), and O2 −2 (peroxide). ROS has been a major factor for several mechanisms including cell wall damage due to ZnO-localized interaction, enhanced membrane permeability, internalization of NPs due to loss of proton motive force and uptake of toxic dissolved zinc ions. These have led to mitochondria weakness, intracellular outflow, and release in gene expression of oxidative stress which caused eventual cell growth inhibition and cell death. In some cases, enhanced antibacterial activity can be attributed to surface defects on ZnO abrasive surface texture. One functional application of the ZnO antibacterial bioactivity was discussed in food packaging industry where ZnO-NPs are used as an antibacterial agent toward foodborne diseases. Proper incorporation of ZnO-NPs into packaging materials can cause interaction with foodborne pathogens, thereby releasing NPs onto food surface where they come in contact with bad bacteria and cause the bacterial death and/or inhibition.
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              Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations.

              N. Peppas (2000)
              The availability of large molecular weight protein- and peptide-based drugs due to the recent advances in the field of molecular biology has given us new ways to treat a number of diseases. Synthetic hydrogels offer a possibly effective and convenient way to administer these compounds. Hydrogels are hydrophilic, three-dimensional networks, which are able to imbibe large amounts of water or biological fluids, and thus resemble, to a large extent, a biological tissue. They are insoluble due to the presence of chemical (tie-points, junctions) and/or physical crosslinks such as entanglements and crystallites. These materials can be synthesized to respond to a number of physiological stimuli present in the body, such as pH, ionic strength and temperature. The aim of this article is to present a concise review on the applications of hydrogels in the pharmaceutical field, hydrogel characterization and analysis of drug release from such devices.

                Author and article information

                Polymers (Basel)
                Polymers (Basel)
                23 November 2017
                December 2017
                : 9
                : 12
                : 636
                [1 ]Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, TEDA, Tianjin 300457, China; kfazliwahid@ 123456yahoo.com (F.W.); czhong.tju@ 123456gmail.com (C.Z.); huxiaohui666666@ 123456163.com (X.-H.H.)
                [2 ]College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, TEDA, Tianjin 300457, China; w1044674839@ 123456163.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: chuliqiang@ 123456tust.edu.cn ; Tel.: +86-22-6060-2430; Fax: +86-22-6060-2476
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 08 November 2017
                : 19 November 2017

                nanocomposite hydrogels,antimicrobial activity,metal ions/nanoparticles,metal oxide nanoparticles


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