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      Chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane

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          Abstract

          Cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process induced by genetic and epigenetic changes that disrupt pathways controlling cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and senescence. In this context, many bioactive dietary compounds from vegetables and fruits have been demonstrated to be effective in cancer prevention and intervention. Over the years, sulforaphane (SFN), found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to have chemopreventive activity in vitro and in vivo. SFN protects cells from environmental carcinogens and also induces growth arrest and/or apoptosis in various cancer cells. In this review, we will discuss several potential mechanisms of the chemopreventive activity of SFN, including regulation of Phase I and Phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis, especially via regulation of signaling pathways such as Nrf2-Keap1 and NF-κB. Recent studies suggest that SFN can also affect the epigenetic control of key genes and greatly influence the initiation and progression of cancer. This research may provide a basis for the clinical use of SFN for cancer chemoprevention and enable us to design preventive strategies for cancer management, reduce cancer development and recurrence, and thus improve patient survival.

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          Most cited references 77

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          BTB protein Keap1 targets antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 for ubiquitination by the Cullin 3-Roc1 ligase.

          The concentrations and functions of many eukaryotic proteins are regulated by the ubiquitin pathway, which consists of ubiquitin activation (E1), conjugation (E2), and ligation (E3). Cullins are a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that assemble by far the largest family of E3 ligase complexes. Cullins, via a conserved C-terminal domain, bind with the RING finger protein Roc1 to recruit the catalytic function of E2. Via a distinct N-terminal domain, individual cullins bind to a protein motif present in multiple proteins to recruit specific substrates. Cullin 3 (Cul3), but not other cullins, binds directly with BTB domains to constitute a potentially large number of BTB-CUL3-ROC1 E3 ubiquitin ligases. Here we report that the human BTB-Kelch protein Keap1, a negative regulator of the antioxidative transcription factor Nrf2, binds to CUL3 and Nrf2 via its BTB and Kelch domains, respectively. The KEAP1-CUL3-ROC1 complex promoted NRF2 ubiquitination in vitro and knocking down Keap1 or CUL3 by short interfering RNA resulted in NRF2 protein accumulation in vivo. We suggest that Keap1 negatively regulates Nrf2 function in part by targeting Nrf2 for ubiquitination by the CUL3-ROC1 ligase and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. Blocking NRF2 degradation in cells expressing both KEAP1 and NRF2 by either inhibiting the proteasome activity or knocking down Cul3, resulted in NRF2 accumulation in the cytoplasm. These results may reconcile previously observed cytoplasmic sequestration of NRF2 by KEAP1 and suggest a possible regulatory step between KEAP1-NRF2 binding and NRF2 degradation.
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            Molecular targets of dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphane for cancer chemoprevention.

            Development of cancer is a long-term and multistep process which comprises initiation, progression, and promotion stages of carcinogenesis. Conceivably, it can be targeted and interrupted along these different stages. In this context, many naturally occurring dietary compounds from our daily consumption of fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess cancer preventive effects. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN) are two of the most widely investigated isothiocyanates from the crucifers. Both have been found to be very potent chemopreventive agents in numerous animal carcinogenesis models as well as cell culture models. They exert their chemopreventive effects through regulation of diverse molecular mechanisms. In this review, we will discuss the molecular targets of PEITC and SFN potentially involved in cancer chemoprevention. These include the regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes phase I cytochrome P450s and phase II metabolizing enzymes. In addition, the signaling pathways including Nrf2-Keap 1, anti-inflammatory NFkappaB, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest as well as some receptors will also be discussed. Furthermore, we will also discuss the similarities and their potential differences in the regulation of these molecular targets by PEITC and SFN.
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              Preclinical and clinical evaluation of sulforaphane for chemoprevention in the breast.

              Consumers of higher levels of Brassica vegetables, particularly those of the genus Brassica (broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cabbage), reduce their susceptibility to cancer at a variety of organ sites. Brassica vegetables contain high concentrations of glucosinolates that can be hydrolyzed by the plant enzyme, myrosinase, or intestinal microflora to isothiocyanates, potent inducers of cytoprotective enzymes and inhibitors of carcinogenesis. Oral administration of either the isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, or its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, inhibits mammary carcinogenesis in rats treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. In this study, we sought to determine whether sulforaphane exerts a direct chemopreventive action on animal and human mammary tissue. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single 150 mumol oral dose of sulforaphane were evaluated in the rat mammary gland. We detected sulforaphane metabolites at concentrations known to alter gene expression in cell culture. Elevated cytoprotective NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene transcripts were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An observed 3-fold increase in NQO1 enzymatic activity, as well as 4-fold elevated immunostaining of HO-1 in rat mammary epithelium, provides strong evidence of a pronounced pharmacodynamic action of sulforaphane. In a subsequent pilot study, eight healthy women undergoing reduction mammoplasty were given a single dose of a broccoli sprout preparation containing 200 mumol of sulforaphane. Following oral dosing, sulforaphane metabolites were readily measurable in human breast tissue enriched for epithelial cells. These findings provide a strong rationale for evaluating the protective effects of a broccoli sprout preparation in clinical trials of women at risk for breast cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                11 September 2018
                : 12
                : 2905-2913
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
                [2 ]Department of Pathobiology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai 519000, China
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Florida Hospital, Orlando, FL, USA
                [4 ]Key Laboratory of Pathobiology, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China, xinying13@ 123456126.com
                [5 ]Department of General Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China, lgy08@ 123456sina.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ying Xin, Key Laboratory of Pathobiology, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, 126 Xinmin Street, Changchun 130021, China, Tel +86 139 4491 4579, Email xinying13@ 123456126.com
                Guoyue Lv, Department of General Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, 71 Xinmin Street, Changchun 130021, China, Tel +86 136 8982 5113, Email lgy08@ 123456sina.com
                Article
                dddt-12-2905
                10.2147/DDDT.S100534
                6141106
                © 2018 Jiang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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