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      Expression of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide/Peptide Histidine Isoleucine in Several Hypothalamic Areas during the Turkey Reproductive Cycle: Relationship to Prolactin Secretion

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          The present study examined the changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) gene expression in the hypothalamus and compared their level of expression to prolactin (PRL) secretion throughout the turkey reproductive cycle. Both VIP and PHI expression were determined using in situ hybridization histochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction/Southern blot analysis. Plasma PRL levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The changes in total hypothalamic VIP and PHI mRNA steady-state levels mirrored the changes seen in plasma PRL across the reproductive stages. In situ hybridization revealed that VIP mRNA was highly expressed throughout the hypothalamus and predominated within the ventromedial nucleus (VMN), inferior hypothalamus, and infundibular nuclear complex (INF). PHI mRNA was expressed in very low abundance within the same areas expressing VIP mRNA. VIP mRNA abundance within the VMN and INF was lowest in nonphotostimulated hens (VMN, 13.8 ± 1.7; INF, 17.0 ± 1.8 arbitrary densitometric units (ADU)), intermediate in laying hens (VMN, 29.6 ± 3.3; INF, 35.4 ± 4.3 ADU), and highest in incubating hens (VMN, 76.4 ± 10.2; INF, 119.2 ± 3.4 ADU). Levels decreased when birds shifted from incubation to photorefractoriness (VMN, 75%; INF, 82%). This relationship was not observed within other areas of the hypothalamus. The expression of PHI mRNA was also highest in the VMN and INF of incubating hens but no correlation between PHI mRNA and the other reproductive states was observed. This study provides additional evidence that VIP is the avian PRL-releasing factor, and suggests that the central site for avian PRL regulation lies within the INF of the hypothalamus.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Copulatory behavior is controlled by the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the quail POA

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              Sites of gene expression for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide throughout the brain of the chick (Gallus domesticus).

              The peptide neurotransmitter vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has several important functions in vertebrates, particularly, influencing the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems both in developing and in adult animals. To document potential brain areas that might play significant functional roles, the distribution of VIP mRNA was examined throughout the entire chick brain by using in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH). In addition, a VIP binding-site study was completed that focused on the lateral septal organ (LSO), a circumventricular organ of potential significance in avian species. The areas where VIP message was found included the olfactory bulbs, posterior hippocampus, parahippocampal area, hyperstriatum, archistriatum/nucleus (n.) taenia (amygdala), medial part of the LSO, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, medial preoptic region, bed n. of the pallial commissure, anterior hypothalamic (hypo.) n., lateral hypo. area (most extensive and dense message), periventricular hypo. n., lateral to the paraventricular n., ventromedial hypo. n., stratum cellulare externum, inferior hypo. n., infundibular hypo. n., median eminence, three layers within the stratum griseum et fibrosum superficiale, area ventralis of Tsai, n. tegmenti pedunculopontinus pars compacta (substantia nigra), intercollicular n., central gray, locus ceruleus, parabrachial n., ventrolateral medulla, reticular pontine area, in and about the n. vestibularis descendens. When compared with immunocytochemistry that detected the presence of the peptide product VIP, more areas of the brain were found to contain perikarya expressing VIP by using ISHH, particularly in the telencephalon and the mesencephalon. VIP binding sites were found in the lateral portion of the LSO where the blood-brain barrier is not fully developed. Hence, the LSO was found to contain neural elements that synthesize as well as bind VIP. VIP appears to be a useful peptide for defining major components of the visceral forebrain system in birds.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                December 1999
                24 December 1999
                : 70
                : 6
                : 402-412
                Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minn., USA
                54502 Neuroendocrinology 1999;70:402–412
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 59, Pages: 11
                Regulation of Hypothalamic Neurons


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