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      Urate Transporter Gene SLC22A12 Polymorphisms Associated with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Caucasians with Hypertension

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Hyperuricemia is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. URAT1 is a urate transporter, and we tested the association of URAT1 transporter gene (SLC22A12) polymorphisms with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in hypertensive subjects. Methods: Patients with essential hypertension (n = 414) from a randomized controlled study were genotyped for SLC22A12 SNPs rs11602903, rs505802 and rs11231825. Results: In Caucasians, SLC22A12 SNPs were associated with the body mass index (BMI). rs11602903 was associated with BMI (p < 0.0001), waist circumference (p = 0.003), HDL cholesterol (p = 0.018) and the metabolic syndrome (p = 0.033), and accounted for 7% of the variation of BMI in Caucasians. In African Americans, SLC22A12 SNP rs11602903 was not associated with BMI, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol or triglycerides. Conclusion: The URAT1 gene SLC22A12 polymorphism may play a role in obesity and the metabolic syndrome in Caucasian hypertensive subjects.

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          Most cited references 22

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          A causal role for uric acid in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

          The worldwide epidemic of metabolic syndrome correlates with an elevation in serum uric acid as well as a marked increase in total fructose intake (in the form of table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup). Fructose raises uric acid, and the latter inhibits nitric oxide bioavailability. Because insulin requires nitric oxide to stimulate glucose uptake, we hypothesized that fructose-induced hyperuricemia may have a pathogenic role in metabolic syndrome. Four sets of experiments were performed. First, pair-feeding studies showed that fructose, and not dextrose, induced features (hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia) of metabolic syndrome. Second, in rats receiving a high-fructose diet, the lowering of uric acid with either allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor) or benzbromarone (a uricosuric agent) was able to prevent or reverse features of metabolic syndrome. In particular, the administration of allopurinol prophylactically prevented fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia (272.3 vs.160.8 pmol/l, P < 0.05), systolic hypertension (142 vs. 133 mmHg, P < 0.05), hypertriglyceridemia (233.7 vs. 65.4 mg/dl, P < 0.01), and weight gain (455 vs. 425 g, P < 0.05) at 8 wk. Neither allopurinol nor benzbromarone affected dietary intake of control diet in rats. Finally, uric acid dose dependently inhibited endothelial function as manifested by a reduced vasodilatory response of aortic artery rings to acetylcholine. These data provide the first evidence that uric acid may be a cause of metabolic syndrome, possibly due to its ability to inhibit endothelial function. Fructose may have a major role in the epidemic of metabolic syndrome and obesity due to its ability to raise uric acid.
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            SLC2A9 is a newly identified urate transporter influencing serum urate concentration, urate excretion and gout.

            Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans and great apes, which have lost hepatic uricase activity, leading to uniquely high serum uric acid concentrations (200-500 microM) compared with other mammals (3-120 microM). About 70% of daily urate disposal occurs via the kidneys, and in 5-25% of the human population, impaired renal excretion leads to hyperuricemia. About 10% of people with hyperuricemia develop gout, an inflammatory arthritis that results from deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joint. We have identified genetic variants within a transporter gene, SLC2A9, that explain 1.7-5.3% of the variance in serum uric acid concentrations, following a genome-wide association scan in a Croatian population sample. SLC2A9 variants were also associated with low fractional excretion of uric acid and/or gout in UK, Croatian and German population samples. SLC2A9 is a known fructose transporter, and we now show that it has strong uric acid transport activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes.
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              Serum uric acid and risk for cardiovascular disease and death: the Framingham Heart Study.

              Hyperuricemia is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease and death. However, the role of uric acid independent of established risk factors is uncertain. To examine the relation of serum uric acid level to incident coronary heart disease, death from cardiovascular disease, and death from all causes. Community-based, prospective observational study. Framingham, Massachusetts. 6763 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age, 47 years). Serum uricacid level at baseline (1971 to 1976); event rates per 1000 person-years by sex-specific uric acid quintile. During 117,376 person-years of follow-up, 617 coronary heart disease events, 429 cardiovascular disease deaths, and 1460 deaths from all causes occurred. In men, after adjustment for age, elevated serum uric acid level was not associated with increased risk for an adverse outcome. In women, after adjustment for age, uric acid level was predictive of coronary heart disease (P = 0.002), death from cardiovascular disease (P = 0.009), and death from all causes (P = 0.03). After additional adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors, uric acid level was no longer associated with coronary heart disease, death from cardiovascular disease, or death from all causes. In a stepwise Cox model, diuretic use was identified as the covariate responsible for rendering serum uric acid a statistically nonsignificant predictor of outcomes. These findings indicate that uric acid does not have a causal role in the development of coronary heart disease, death from cardiovascular disease, or death from all causes. Any apparent association with these outcomes is probably due to the association of uric acid level with other risk factors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2012
                January 2013
                08 June 2012
                : 35
                : 6
                : 477-482
                Affiliations
                aCollege of Pharmacy and Center for Pharmacogenomics and bCollege of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., cDivision of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado, Denver, Colo., dDivision of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., and eDivision of Nephrology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Ga., USA
                Author notes
                *Dr. Mohamed Shafiu, Renal Associates, P.A., 16620 US Hwy 281 N # 300, San Antonio, TX 78232 (USA), Tel. +1 210 614 1231, E-Mail mshafiu@rapadocs.com
                Article
                337370 Kidney Blood Press Res 2012;35:477–482
                10.1159/000337370
                22688828
                © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

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