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      Biodiversity loss and the taxonomic bottleneck: emerging biodiversity science

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      Ecological Research
      Springer Nature

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          Urbanization, Biodiversity, and Conservation

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            Ecology and the origin of species.

            The ecological hypothesis of speciation is that reproductive isolation evolves ultimately as a consequence of divergent natural selection on traits between environments. Ecological speciation is general and might occur in allopatry or sympatry, involve many agents of natural selection, and result from a combination of adaptive processes. The main difficulty of the ecological hypothesis has been the scarcity of examples from nature, but several potential cases have recently emerged. I review the mechanisms that give rise to new species by divergent selection, compare ecological speciation with its alternatives, summarize recent tests in nature, and highlight areas requiring research.
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              Ecological effects of climate fluctuations.

              Climate influences a variety of ecological processes. These effects operate through local weather parameters such as temperature, wind, rain, snow, and ocean currents, as well as interactions among these. In the temperate zone, local variations in weather are often coupled over large geographic areas through the transient behavior of atmospheric planetary-scale waves. These variations drive temporally and spatially averaged exchanges of heat, momentum, and water vapor that ultimately determine growth, recruitment, and migration patterns. Recently, there have been several studies of the impact of large-scale climatic forcing on ecological systems. We review how two of the best-known climate phenomena-the North Atlantic Oscillation and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation-affect ecological patterns and processes in both marine and terrestrial systems.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ecological Research
                Ecol Res
                Springer Nature
                0912-3814
                1440-1703
                December 7 2006
                October 24 2006
                : 21
                : 6
                : 794-810
                Article
                10.1007/s11284-006-0035-7
                3214f04a-598c-4ffe-b91d-01b787fc5cbb
                © 2006
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11284-006-0035-7

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