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      Metal nanoparticles: understanding the mechanisms behind antibacterial activity

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          Abstract

          As the field of nanomedicine emerges, there is a lag in research surrounding the topic of nanoparticle (NP) toxicity, particularly concerned with mechanisms of action. The continuous emergence of bacterial resistance has challenged the research community to develop novel antibiotic agents. Metal NPs are among the most promising of these because show strong antibacterial activity. This review summarizes and discusses proposed mechanisms of antibacterial action of different metal NPs. These mechanisms of bacterial killing include the production of reactive oxygen species, cation release, biomolecule damages, ATP depletion, and membrane interaction. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of NPs on the regulation of genes and proteins (transcriptomic and proteomic) profiles is discussed.

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          Most cited references 78

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          The green fluorescent protein.

          In just three years, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria has vaulted from obscurity to become one of the most widely studied and exploited proteins in biochemistry and cell biology. Its amazing ability to generate a highly visible, efficiently emitting internal fluorophore is both intrinsically fascinating and tremendously valuable. High-resolution crystal structures of GFP offer unprecedented opportunities to understand and manipulate the relation between protein structure and spectroscopic function. GFP has become well established as a marker of gene expression and protein targeting in intact cells and organisms. Mutagenesis and engineering of GFP into chimeric proteins are opening new vistas in physiological indicators, biosensors, and photochemical memories.
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            Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli.

            In this work we investigated the antibacterial properties of differently shaped silver nanoparticles against the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, both in liquid systems and on agar plates. Energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy images revealed considerable changes in the cell membranes upon treatment, resulting in cell death. Truncated triangular silver nanoplates with a {111} lattice plane as the basal plane displayed the strongest biocidal action, compared with spherical and rod-shaped nanoparticles and with Ag(+) (in the form of AgNO(3)). It is proposed that nanoscale size and the presence of a {111} plane combine to promote this biocidal property. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study on the bactericidal properties of silver nanoparticles of different shapes, and our results demonstrate that silver nanoparticles undergo a shape-dependent interaction with the gram-negative organism E. coli.
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              Nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery.

              Nanotechnology could be defined as the technology that has allowed for the control, manipulation, study, and manufacture of structures and devices in the "nanometer" size range. These nano-sized objects, e.g., "nanoparticles", take on novel properties and functions that differ markedly from those seen from items made of identical materials. The small size, customized surface, improved solubility, and multi-functionality of nanoparticles will continue to open many doors and create new biomedical applications. Indeed, the novel properties of nanoparticles offer the ability to interact with complex cellular functions in new ways. This rapidly growing field requires cross-disciplinary research and provides opportunities to design and develop multifunctional devices that can target, diagnose, and treat devastating diseases such as cancer. This article presents an overview of nanotechnology for the biologist and discusses the attributes of our novel XPclad((c)) nanoparticle formulation that has shown efficacy in treating solid tumors, single dose vaccination, and oral delivery of therapeutic proteins.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                yaelnicoleslavin@gmail.com
                jason.asnis@mail.mcgill.ca
                urs.hafeli@ubc.ca
                hbach@mail.ubc.ca
                Journal
                J Nanobiotechnology
                J Nanobiotechnology
                Journal of Nanobiotechnology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1477-3155
                3 October 2017
                3 October 2017
                2017
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2288 9830, GRID grid.17091.3e, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, , University of British Columbia, ; 410-2660 Oak St., Vancouver, BC V6H3Z6 Canada
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2288 9830, GRID grid.17091.3e, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, , University of British Columbia, ; Vancouver, BC Canada
                Article
                308
                10.1186/s12951-017-0308-z
                5627441
                28974225
                3214f809-6904-4d55-9135-f9c023f774c4
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000032, Institute of Infection and Immunity;
                Award ID: 01369- 000
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Review
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                © The Author(s) 2017

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