+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The Immune Functions of Keratinocytes in Skin Wound Healing


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          As the most dominant cell type in the skin, keratinocytes play critical roles in wound repair not only as structural cells but also exerting important immune functions. This review focuses on the communications between keratinocytes and immune cells in wound healing, which are mediated by various cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular vesicles. Keratinocytes can also directly interact with T cells via antigen presentation. Moreover, keratinocytes produce antimicrobial peptides that can directly kill the invading pathogens and contribute to wound repair in many aspects. We also reviewed the epigenetic mechanisms known to regulate keratinocyte immune functions, including histone modifications, non-protein-coding RNAs (e.g., microRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs), and chromatin dynamics. Lastly, we summarized the current evidence on the dysregulated immune functions of keratinocytes in chronic nonhealing wounds. Based on their crucial immune functions in skin wound healing, we propose that keratinocytes significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic wound inflammation. We hope this review will trigger an interest in investigating the immune roles of keratinocytes in chronic wound pathology, which may open up new avenues for developing innovative wound treatments.

          Related collections

          Most cited references180

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Specificities of secretion and uptake of exosomes and other extracellular vesicles for cell-to-cell communication

          The ability of exosomes to transfer cargo from donor to acceptor cells, thereby triggering phenotypic changes in the latter, has generated substantial interest in the scientific community. However, the extent to which exosomes differ from other extracellular vesicles in terms of their biogenesis and functions remains ill-defined. Here, we discuss the current knowledge on the specificities of exosomes and other types of extracellular vesicles, and their roles as important agents of cell-to-cell communication.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Long non-coding RNAs: insights into functions.

            In mammals and other eukaryotes most of the genome is transcribed in a developmentally regulated manner to produce large numbers of long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Here we review the rapidly advancing field of long ncRNAs, describing their conservation, their organization in the genome and their roles in gene regulation. We also consider the medical implications, and the emerging recognition that any transcript, regardless of coding potential, can have an intrinsic function as an RNA.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Regulation of chromatin by histone modifications.

              Chromatin is not an inert structure, but rather an instructive DNA scaffold that can respond to external cues to regulate the many uses of DNA. A principle component of chromatin that plays a key role in this regulation is the modification of histones. There is an ever-growing list of these modifications and the complexity of their action is only just beginning to be understood. However, it is clear that histone modifications play fundamental roles in most biological processes that are involved in the manipulation and expression of DNA. Here, we describe the known histone modifications, define where they are found genomically and discuss some of their functional consequences, concentrating mostly on transcription where the majority of characterisation has taken place.

                Author and article information

                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                20 November 2020
                November 2020
                : 21
                : 22
                : 8790
                Center for Molecular Medicine, Ming Wai Lau Centre for Reparative Medicine, Department of Medicine Solna, Dermatology and Venereology Division, Karolinska Institute, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden; minna.piipponen@ 123456ki.se (M.P.); dongqing.li@ 123456ki.se (D.L.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ning.xu@ 123456ki.se

                These authors contributed equally as the first authors of the paper.

                Author information
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 26 October 2020
                : 17 November 2020

                Molecular biology
                keratinocyte,wound healing,immune function,cytokine,antimicrobial peptide,epigenetic regulation,microrna,long noncoding rna,chronic wounds,inflammation


                Comment on this article