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      Role of Calcium/Creatinine Ratio in Urine Compared with Proteinuria and Uric Acid in Predicting Preeclampsia: A Study from Kosovo

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          Abstract

          Background

          Preeclampsia is a common complication of pregnancy and a major cause of morbidity and mortality of mothers and babies worldwide. This study aimed to explore what the role of calcium/creatinine ratio is in urine compared with proteinuria and uric acid in predicting preeclampsia.

          Material/Methods

          In this prospective case-control study, 200 pregnant women who participated in the study were consecutively divided into 3 groups: a group of 59 women with preeclampsia, 61 women with pregnancy-induced hypertension, and a control group of 80 normotensive pregnant women. A 24-h urine sample was collected for estimation of calcium/creatinine ratio and proteinuria and a blood sample for estimation of uric acid at a gestational age of 24–34 weeks of pregnancy.

          Results

          The study found that the sensitivity of proteinuria as a predictor of preeclampsia was 96.6% ( P=0.000) and specificity was 21.3%. The sensitivity of uric acid as a predictor was 96.6% ( P=0.000) and the specificity was 48.8%; whereas for the 24-h urine calcium/creatinine ratio, the sensitivity was 87.9% ( P=0.000) and the specificity 40.7%, which corresponds to a value of 0.105 (cutoff). Women with a calcium/creatinine ratio <0.105 have a higher risk of developing preeclampsia (87.9% confidence interval, P=0.000).

          Conclusions

          The role of the calcium/creatinine ratio in urine is inferior to proteinuria and uric acid in predicting preeclampsia.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Clinical risk prediction for pre-eclampsia in nulliparous women: development of model in international prospective cohort

          Objectives To develop a predictive model for pre-eclampsia based on clinical risk factors for nulliparous women and to identify a subgroup at increased risk, in whom specialist referral might be indicated. Design Prospective multicentre cohort. Setting Five centres in Auckland, New Zealand; Adelaide, Australia; Manchester and London, United Kingdom; and Cork, Republic of Ireland. Participants 3572 “healthy” nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy from a large international study; data on pregnancy outcome were available for 3529 (99%). Main outcome measure Pre-eclampsia defined as ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or both, on at least two occasions four hours apart after 20 weeks’ gestation but before the onset of labour, or postpartum, with either proteinuria or any multisystem complication. Preterm pre-eclampsia was defined as women with pre-eclampsia delivered before 37+0 weeks’ gestation. In the stepwise logistic regression the comparison group was women without pre-eclampsia. Results Of the 3529 women, 186 (5.3%) developed pre-eclampsia, including 47 (1.3%) with preterm pre-eclampsia. Clinical risk factors at 14-16 weeks’ gestation were age, mean arterial blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), family history of pre-eclampsia, family history of coronary heart disease, maternal birth weight, and vaginal bleeding for at least five days. Factors associated with reduced risk were a previous single miscarriage with the same partner, taking at least 12 months to conceive, high intake of fruit, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use in the first trimester. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), under internal validation, was 0.71. Addition of uterine artery Doppler indices did not improve performance (internal validation AUC 0.71). A framework for specialist referral was developed based on a probability of pre-eclampsia generated by the model of at least 15% or an abnormal uterine artery Doppler waveform in a subset of women with single risk factors. Nine per cent of nulliparous women would be referred for a specialist opinion, of whom 21% would develop pre-eclampsia. The relative risk for developing pre-eclampsia and preterm pre-eclampsia in women referred to a specialist compared with standard care was 5.5 and 12.2, respectively. Conclusions The ability to predict pre-eclampsia in healthy nulliparous women using clinical phenotype is modest and requires external validation in other populations. If validated, it could provide a personalised clinical risk profile for nulliparous women to which biomarkers could be added. Trial registration ACTRN12607000551493.
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            Pathogenesis and genetics of pre-eclampsia.

            After more than a century of intensive research, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia remain an enigmatic set of conditions. Aberration of the interaction between placental and maternal tissue is probably the primary cause, but the exact nature of the differences from normal pregnancy remain elusive. In this review attempts to understand the sequence of physiological changes have concentrated on vascular endothelium and oxidative stress issues. There are genetic components to susceptibility, but the relative contributions of maternal and fetal genotypes are still unclear. Whole-genome mapping could ultimately define the causative genes.
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              The global impact of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.

               Lelia Duley (2009)
              Over half a million women die each year from pregnancy related causes, 99% in low and middle income countries. In many low income countries, complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death amongst women of reproductive years. The Millennium Development Goals have placed maternal health at the core of the struggle against poverty and inequality, as a matter of human rights. Ten percent of women have high blood pressure during pregnancy, and preeclampsia complicates 2% to 8% of pregnancies. Preeclampsia can lead to problems in the liver, kidneys, brain and the clotting system. Risks for the baby include poor growth and prematurity. Although outcome is often good, preeclampsia can be devastating and life threatening. Overall, 10% to 15% of direct maternal deaths are associated with preeclampsia and eclampsia. Where maternal mortality is high, most of deaths are attributable to eclampsia, rather than preeclampsia. Perinatal mortality is high following preeclampsia, and even higher following eclampsia. In low and middle income countries many public hospitals have limited access to neonatal intensive care, and so the mortality and morbidity is likely to be considerably higher than in settings where such facilities are available. The only interventions shown to prevent preeclampsia are antiplatelet agents, primarily low dose aspirin, and calcium supplementation. Treatment is largely symptomatic. Antihypertensive drugs are mandatory for very high blood pressure. Plasma volume expansion, corticosteroids and antioxidant agents have been suggested for severe preeclampsia, but trials to date have not shown benefit. Optimal timing for delivery of women with severe preeclampsia before 32 to 34 weeks' gestation remains a dilemma. Magnesium sulfate can prevent and control eclamptic seizures. For preeclampsia, it more than halves the risk of eclampsia (number needed to treat 100, 95% confidence interval 50 to 100) and probably reduces the risk of maternal death. A quarter of women have side effects, primarily flushing. With clinical monitoring serious adverse effects are rare. Magnesium sulfate is the anticonvulsant of choice for treating eclampsia; more effective than diazepam, phenytoin, or lytic cocktail. Although it is a low cost effective treatment, magnesium sulfate is not available in all low and middle income countries; scaling up its use for eclampsia and severe preeclampsia will contribute to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Med Sci Monit Basic Res
                Med Sci Monit Basic Res
                Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
                Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
                International Scientific Literature, Inc.
                2325-4394
                2325-4416
                2021
                01 March 2021
                : 27
                : e929845-1-e929845-7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Gynecology, University Clinical Center of Kosovo, Medical Faculty, University of Prishtine, Prishtine, Kosovo
                [2 ]University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology Koço Gliozheni, University of Medicine, Tirana, Albania
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Vlora Ademi Ibishi, e-mail: vlora.ibishi@ 123456uni-pr.edu
                [A]

                Study Design

                [B]

                Data Collection

                [C]

                Statistical Analysis

                [D]

                Data Interpretation

                [E]

                Manuscript Preparation

                [F]

                Literature Search

                [G]

                Funds Collection

                Article
                929845
                10.12659/MSMBR.929845
                7934340
                © Med Sci Monit, 2021

                This work is licensed under Creative Common Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International ( CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

                Categories
                Human Study

                pre-eclampsia, proteinuria, uric acid

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