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      Comparison of gastrointestinal parasite communities in vervet monkeys

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          Abstract

          Globally, habitat degradation is accelerating, especially in the tropics. Changes to interface habitats can increase environmental overlap among nonhuman primates, people, and domestic animals and change stress levels in wildlife, leading to changes in their risk of parasite infections. However, the direction and consequences of these changes are unclear, since animals may benefit by exploiting human resources (e.g., improving nutritional health by eating nutritious crops) and decreasing susceptibility to infection, or interactions with humans may lead to chronic stress and increased susceptibility to infection. Vervet monkeys are an excellent model to understand parasitic disease transmission because of their tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Here we quantify the gastrointestinal parasites of a group of vervet monkeys ( Chlorocebus aethiops) near Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, that frequently overlaps with people in their use of a highly modified environment. We compare the parasites found in this population to seven other sites where vervet monkey gastrointestinal parasites have been identified. The vervets of Lake Nabugabo have the greatest richness of parasites documented to date. We discuss how this may reflect differences in sampling intensity or differences in the types of habitat where vervet parasites have been sampled.

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          High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change.

          Quantification of global forest change has been lacking despite the recognized importance of forest ecosystem services. In this study, Earth observation satellite data were used to map global forest loss (2.3 million square kilometers) and gain (0.8 million square kilometers) from 2000 to 2012 at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The tropics were the only climate domain to exhibit a trend, with forest loss increasing by 2101 square kilometers per year. Brazil's well-documented reduction in deforestation was offset by increasing forest loss in Indonesia, Malaysia, Paraguay, Bolivia, Zambia, Angola, and elsewhere. Intensive forestry practiced within subtropical forests resulted in the highest rates of forest change globally. Boreal forest loss due largely to fire and forestry was second to that in the tropics in absolute and proportional terms. These results depict a globally consistent and locally relevant record of forest change.
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            Solutions for a cultivated planet.

            Increasing population and consumption are placing unprecedented demands on agriculture and natural resources. Today, approximately a billion people are chronically malnourished while our agricultural systems are concurrently degrading land, water, biodiversity and climate on a global scale. To meet the world's future food security and sustainability needs, food production must grow substantially while, at the same time, agriculture's environmental footprint must shrink dramatically. Here we analyse solutions to this dilemma, showing that tremendous progress could be made by halting agricultural expansion, closing 'yield gaps' on underperforming lands, increasing cropping efficiency, shifting diets and reducing waste. Together, these strategies could double food production while greatly reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture.
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              How stress influences the immune response.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                kim.valenta@McGill.ca
                Journal
                Integr Zool
                Integr Zool
                10.1111/(ISSN)1749-4877
                INZ2
                Integrative Zoology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1749-4869
                1749-4877
                16 November 2017
                November 2017
                : 12
                : 6 ( doiID: 10.1111/inz2.2017.12.issue-6 )
                : 512-520
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] McGill School of Environment McGill University Montreal Quebec Canada
                [ 2 ] Makerere University Biological Field Station Kampala Uganda
                [ 3 ] Bilingual Biology Program, Department of Multidisciplinary Studies, Glendon Campus York University Toronto Ontario Canada
                [ 4 ] Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine University of Wisconsin‐Madison Madison Wisconsin USA
                [ 5 ] Wildlife Conservation Society Bronx New York USA
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence: Kim Valenta, McGill School of Environment, McGill University, 3534 University St. H3A 2A7 Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Email: kim.valenta@ 123456McGill.ca
                Article
                INZ212270
                10.1111/1749-4877.12270
                5725676
                28685946
                © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, References: 48, Pages: 9, Words: 1643
                Product
                Categories
                Short Communication
                Short Communication
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                inz212270
                November 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.2.8 mode:remove_FC converted:12.12.2017

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