Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) has been the focus of a number of experimental pain studies. Although a number of reviews exist, few have critically evaluated the existing body of research on PD and experimental and procedural pain. Data from 19 published research articles that include women with PD and responses to an experimental or procedural pain stimulus (or stimuli) suggest that women with PD may have elevated pain reactivity, as compared to women without PD. This pattern appears to be true across different phases of the menstrual cycle. However, there is an abundance of conflicting findings, which may be due to significant methodological issues such as inconsistent definitions of PD, wide variation in experimental pain methodologies, and inaccurate assessment of the menstrual cycle. Future research should focus on identifying specific symptoms (i.e., pain threshold ratings) to more clearly define what constitutes PD, establish reliable and valid laboratory testing protocols, and assess the menstrual cycle with greater precision.