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      A 20-Year Experience of Combined Liver/Kidney Transplantation for Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH1): The European PH1 Transplant Registry Experience 1984–2004

      American Journal of Nephrology

      S. Karger AG

      Combined liver/kidney transplantation, Primary hyperoxaluria

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          Abstract

          Primary hyperoxaluria (PH1) is a condition caused by a hepatic-based enzyme defect which can lead to renal failure due to oxalate stone disease, obstructive uropathy and nephrocalcinosis. It has been shown that the underlying metabolic defect can be corrected by liver transplantation and in most cases (renal failure having already occurred) is accompanied by a kidney graft. This paper describes the current results of 127 liver transplants performed in 117 patients over a 20-year period from 1984 to 2004 in 35 European centres. The mean age at onset of symptoms was 5.6 ± 7.8 years and the mean age at which a diagnosis was made was 8.8 ± 9.5 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy proven decreased AGT activity in 68% of cases, hyperoxaluria in 74%, hyperglycolicaciduria in 37% and hyperoxalaemia in 50%. Patients were transplanted at a mean age of 16.5 ± 11.4 years following a period of dialysis of 3.2 ± 3.2 years (range 0–14.4 years). 1-, 5- and 10-year patient survival values were 86, 80 and 69%, respectively, and liver graft survival rates of 80, 72 and 60% at the same time intervals. There have been 27 deaths and 10 liver retransplants have been carried out. Patient outcomes are improved when prolonged periods on dialysis and the complications of systemic oxalosis have not occurred.

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          Most cited references 25

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          A United States survey on diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of primary hyperoxaluria.

          Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a heterogeneous disease with a variable age of onset and a variable progression into kidney failure. Early diagnosis is mandatory to avoid the damaging effects of systemic calcium oxalate deposition. In 1997, we initiated a nationwide survey of American nephrologists to ascertain epidemiological data and current practices. PH was reported in only 102 patients, with PH I in 79 and PH II in 9; 14 patients were not classified. Most patients were Caucasian (84%). Main symptoms at diagnosis were urolithiasis (54.4%) and nephrocalcinosis (30%). A significant delay of diagnosis was seen in 42% of patients and 30% of patients were diagnosed only at end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Diagnosis was usually based on history and urinary oxalate excretion. Glycolate and l-glyceric acid excretion were rarely determined. To determine the enzyme defect, a liver biopsy was performed in 40%. Even at ESRD, only 56% of patients received an adequate diagnostic work-up. Half of the patients showed 'good' or 'fair' pyridoxine sensitivity. In addition to B(6), most patients received either citrate or orthophosphate. Kidney transplantation (KTx) failed in 19 of 32 transplants ( n=27 patients) and was due to recurrent oxalosis in 8 transplants. Liver Tx was performed after KTx in 5 patients (1 patient died). Combined liver-kidney Tx in 21 patients (in 9 patients after failure of KTx) achieved good organ function in 13 patients; 7 patients, however, died shortly after transplantation. In conclusion, the time between first symptom and diagnosis of PH must be minimized, and the diagnostic procedures have to be improved. The cases of unclassified hyperoxaluria suggest the possibility of additional type(s) of PH. As isolated KTx failed in 59% of patients, combined liver-kidney Tx seems to be the better choice in place of isolated KTx as the primary transplant procedure.
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            Crystal structure of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and the relationship between genotype and enzymatic phenotype in primary hyperoxaluria type 1.

            A deficiency of the liver-specific enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is responsible for the potentially lethal hereditary kidney stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). Many of the mutations in the gene encoding AGT are associated with specific enzymatic phenotypes such as accelerated proteolysis (Ser205Pro), intra-peroxisomal aggregation (Gly41Arg), inhibition of pyridoxal phosphate binding and loss of catalytic activity (Gly82Glu), and peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting (Gly170Arg). Several mutations, including that responsible for AGT mistargeting, co-segregate and interact synergistically with a Pro11Leu polymorphism found at high frequency in the normal population. In order to gain further insights into the mechanistic link between genotype and enzymatic phenotype in PH1, we have determined the crystal structure of normal human AGT complexed to the competitive inhibitor amino-oxyacetic acid to 2.5A. Analysis of this structure allows the effects of these mutations and polymorphism to be rationalised in terms of AGT tertiary and quaternary conformation, and in particular it provides a possible explanation for the Pro11Leu-Gly170Arg synergism that leads to AGT mistargeting.
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              Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in the Canary Islands: a conformational disease due to I244T mutation in the P11L-containing alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase.

              Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of metabolism resulting from a deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT; EC 2.6.1.44). Most of the PH1 alleles detected in the Canary Islands carry the Ile-244 --> Thr (I244T) mutation in the AGXT gene, with 14 of 16 patients homozygous for this mutation. Four polymorphisms within AGXT and regional microsatellites also were shared in their haplotypes (AGXT*LTM), consistent with a founder effect. The consequences of these amino acid changes were investigated. Although I244T alone did not affect AGXT activity or subcellular localization, when present in the same protein molecule as Leu-11 --> Pro (L11P), it resulted in loss of enzymatic activity in soluble cell extracts. Like its normal counterpart, the AGXT*LTM protein was present in the peroxisomes but it was insoluble in detergent-free buffers. The polymorphism L11P behaved as an intragenic modifier of the I244T mutation, with the resulting protein undergoing stable interaction with molecular chaperones and aggregation. This aggregation was temperature-sensitive. AGXT*LTM expressed in Escherichia coli, as a GST-fusion protein, and in insect cells could be purified and retained enzymatic activity. Among various chemical chaperones tested in cell culture, betaine substantially improved the solubility of the mutant protein and the enzymatic activity in cell lysates. In summary, I244T, the second most common mutation responsible for PH1, is a protein conformational disease that may benefit from new therapies with pharmacological chaperones or small molecules to minimize protein aggregation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2005
                June 2005
                01 July 2005
                : 25
                : 3
                : 282-289
                Affiliations
                Department of Surgery, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, UK
                Article
                86359 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:282–289
                10.1159/000086359
                15961948
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 5, References: 44, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/86359
                Categories
                7th International Workshop on Primary Hyperoxaluria. October, 2004, Rochester, Minn. ...

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