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Age-Specific Determinants of Pulse Wave Velocity among Metabolic Syndrome Components, Inflammatory Markers, and Oxidative Stress

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      Aim: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is thought to have different relationships with metabolic syndrome (MS) components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress, according to age. However, age-specific determinants of PWV have not yet been studied. We investigated age-dependent relationships among PWV and MS components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress.Methods: A total of 4,318 subjects were divided into 4 groups: 19–34 y (n = 687), 35–44 y (n = 1,413), 45–54 y (n = 1,384), and 55–79 y (n = 834). MS components, brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and oxidative stress markers were measured.Results: There were age-related increases in MS, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), triglycerides, glucose, hs-CRP, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (8-epi-PGF2α), and baPWV. BaPWV was significantly associated with sex and elevated BP in the 19–34 y group; with age, sex, BMI, elevated BP and triglycerides in the 35–44 y group; with age, sex, elevated BP, fasting glucose, hs-CRP and oxidized LDL in the 45–54 y group; and with age, BMI, elevated BP, fasting glucose and oxidized LDL in the 55–79 y group.Conclusions: Our results show that age-related increases in baPWV are associated with age-related changes in MS components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress. However, each of these factors has an age-specific, different impact on arterial stiffness. In particular, oxidative stress may be independently associated with arterial stiffness in individuals older than 45 y.

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      Most cited references 25

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        A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used.
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          Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies.

           Michael Gnant (2004)
          A WHO expert consultation addressed the debate about interpretation of recommended body-mass index (BMI) cut-off points for determining overweight and obesity in Asian populations, and considered whether population-specific cut-off points for BMI are necessary. They reviewed scientific evidence that suggests that Asian populations have different associations between BMI, percentage of body fat, and health risks than do European populations. The consultation concluded that the proportion of Asian people with a high risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is substantial at BMIs lower than the existing WHO cut-off point for overweight (> or =25 kg/m2). However, available data do not necessarily indicate a clear BMI cut-off point for all Asians for overweight or obesity. The cut-off point for observed risk varies from 22 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in different Asian populations; for high risk it varies from 26 kg/m2 to 31 kg/m2. No attempt was made, therefore, to redefine cut-off points for each population separately. The consultation also agreed that the WHO BMI cut-off points should be retained as international classifications. The consultation identified further potential public health action points (23.0, 27.5, 32.5, and 37.5 kg/m2) along the continuum of BMI, and proposed methods by which countries could make decisions about the definitions of increased risk for their population.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Research Center for Silver Science, Institute of Symbiotic Life-TECH, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
            [2 ]National Leading Research Laboratory of Clinical Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics, Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
            [3 ]Department of Food and Nutrition, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
            [4 ]Department of Family Practice, National Health Insurance Corporation, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea
            Author notes
            Address for correspondence: Jong Ho Lee, Department of Food & Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Korea E-mail: jhleeb@
            J Atheroscler Thromb
            J. Atheroscler. Thromb
            Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
            Japan Atherosclerosis Society
            1 February 2018
            : 25
            : 2
            : 178-185
            2018 Japan Atherosclerosis Society

            This article is distributed under the terms of the latest version of CC BY-NC-SA defined by the Creative Commons Attribution License.

            Figures: 0, Tables: 4, References: 25, Pages: 8
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