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      Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Terceira and São Miguel Islands (Azores)

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          Abstract

          Background

          The data, presented here, come from samples collected during three research projects which aimed to assess the impact of land-use type on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) diversity and community composition in pastures of Terceira Island (Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal) and also in the native forest of two Azorean Islands (Terceira and São Miguel; Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal). Both projects contributed to improving the knowledge of AMF community structure at both local and regional scales.

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          Little is known on the AMF communities from Azores islands and this study reports the first survey in two Azorean Islands (Terceira and São Miguel). A total of 18,733 glomeromycotan spores were classified at the species level from 244 field soil samples collected in three different habitat types – native forests (dominated by Juniperus brevifolia and Picconia azorica ), semi-natural and intensively-managed pastures. Thirty-seven distinct spore morphotypes, representing ten glomeromycotan families, were detected. Species of the family Acaulosporaceae dominated the samples, with 13 species (38% of the taxa), followed by Glomeraceae (6 spp.), Diversisporaceae (4 spp.), Archaeosporaceae (3 spp.), Claroideoglomeraceae (3 spp.), Gigasporaceae (3 spp.), Ambisporaceae and Paraglomeraceae , both with the same number of AMF species (2 spp.), Sacculosporaceae (1 sp.) and Entrophospora (family insertae sedis). Members of the family Acaulosporaceae occurred almost exclusively in the native forests especially associated with the Picconia azorica rhizosphere, while members of Gigasporaceae family showed a high tendency to occupy the semi-natural pastures and the native forests of Picconia azorica . Members of Glomeraceae family were broadly distributed by all types of habitat which confirm the high ecological plasticity of this AMF family to occupy the more diverse habitats.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Mycorrhizas and soil structure.

          In addition to their well-recognized roles in plant nutrition and communities, mycorrhizas can influence the key ecosystem process of soil aggregation. Here we review the contribution of mycorrhizas, mostly focused on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to soil structure at various hierarchical levels: plant community; individual root; and the soil mycelium. There are a suite of mechanisms by which mycorrhizal fungi can influence soil aggregation at each of these various scales. By extension of these mechanisms to the question of fungal diversity, it is recognized that different species or communities of fungi can promote soil aggregation to different degrees. We argue that soil aggregation should be included in a more complete 'multifunctional' perspective of mycorrhizal ecology, and that in-depth understanding of mycorrhizas/soil process relationships will require analyses emphasizing feedbacks between soil structure and mycorrhizas, rather than a uni-directional approach simply addressing mycorrhizal effects on soils. We finish the discussion by highlighting new tools, developments and foci that will probably be crucial in further understanding mycorrhizal contributions to soil structure.
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            Microbial co-operation in the rhizosphere.

            Soil microbial populations are immersed in a framework of interactions known to affect plant fitness and soil quality. They are involved in fundamental activities that ensure the stability and productivity of both agricultural systems and natural ecosystems. Strategic and applied research has demonstrated that certain co-operative microbial activities can be exploited, as a low-input biotechnology, to help sustainable, environmentally-friendly, agro-technological practices. Much research is addressed at improving understanding of the diversity, dynamics, and significance of rhizosphere microbial populations and their co-operative activities. An analysis of the co-operative microbial activities known to affect plant development is the general aim of this review. In particular, this article summarizes and discusses significant aspects of this general topic, including (i) the analysis of the key activities carried out by the diverse trophic and functional groups of micro-organisms involved in co-operative rhizosphere interactions; (ii) a critical discussion of the direct microbe-microbe interactions which results in processes benefiting sustainable agro-ecosystem development; and (iii) beneficial microbial interactions involving arbuscular mycorrhiza, the omnipresent fungus-plant beneficial symbiosis. The trends of this thematic area will be outlined, from molecular biology and ecophysiological issues to the biotechnological developments for integrated management, to indicate where research is needed in the future.
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              An evidence-based consensus for the classification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota).

              The publication of a large number of taxon names at all levels within the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota) has resulted in conflicting systematic schemes and generated considerable confusion among biologists working with these important plant symbionts. A group of biologists with more than a century of collective experience in the systematics of Glomeromycota examined all available molecular-phylogenetic evidence within the framework of phylogenetic hypotheses, incorporating morphological characters when they were congruent. This study is the outcome, wherein the classification of Glomeromycota is revised by rejecting some new names on the grounds that they are founded in error and by synonymizing others that, while validly published, are not evidence-based. The proposed "consensus" will provide a framework for additional original research aimed at clarifying the evolutionary history of this important group of symbiotic fungi.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                1
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F9B2E808-C883-5F47-B276-6D62129E4FF4
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:245B00E9-BFE5-4B4F-B76E-15C30BA74C02
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2836
                1314-2828
                2020
                01 April 2020
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ] cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores - Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e do Ambiente, Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, São Pedro, 9700-042, Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira, Azores, Portugal cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores - Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e do Ambiente, Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, São Pedro, 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira, Azores Portugal
                [2 ] CFE - Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3001-401, Coimbra, Portugal CFE - Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra Portugal
                [3 ] Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 20A Inverleith Row, EH3 5LR, Edinburgh, United Kingdom Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 20A Inverleith Row, EH3 5LR Edinburgh United Kingdom
                [4 ] School of Agriculture and Environment, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Perth WA 6009, Crawley, Australia School of Agriculture and Environment, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Perth WA 6009 Crawley Australia
                [5 ] CFE – Centre for FunctionalCFE - Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3001-401, Coimbra, Portugal CFE – Centre for FunctionalCFE - Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra Portugal
                [6 ] CBA-UAç – Biotechnology Center of Azores, Universidade dos Açores - Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Rua Capitão D´Ávila, 9700-042, Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal CBA-UAç – Biotechnology Center of Azores, Universidade dos Açores - Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Rua Capitão D´Ávila, 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo Portugal
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Catarina Drumonde Melo ( cdrumonde73@ 123456gmail.com ).

                Academic editor: Dmitry Schigel

                Article
                49759 13027
                10.3897/BDJ.8.e49759
                7142165
                Catarina Drumonde Melo, Christopher Walker, Helena Freitas, Artur Câmara Machado, Paulo A. V. Borges

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 45
                Funding
                This research was funded by Fundo Regional para a Ciência e Tecnologia – Governo dos Açores (M3.1.a/F/059/2016; M3.1.a/F/012/2016) and by the Development Grant (IF/00462/2013) from the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) Portugal with national funds and co-funded by FEDER and COMPETE 2020 program. This research was also funded by the Portuguese Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (SFRH/BD/18355/2004; SFRH/BPD/78059/2011) and by the Fundo Regional para a Ciência e Tecnologia – Governo dos Açores (M3.1.a/F/059/2016). Data acquisition from the native forest was funded by the project FCT-PTDC /AGR-ALI/122152/2010. This manuscript is also a contribution to the updated checklist of Azorean <tn type="higher"><tn-part type="kingdom">Fungi</tn-part></tn> that is being prepared within the newly launched project AZORESBIOPORTAL – PORBIOTA (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072), financed by FEDER in 85% and by Azorean Public funds by 15% through Operational Program Azores 2020.
                Categories
                Data Paper (Biosciences)
                Azores Biota
                Fungi
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Ecology & Environmental sciences
                Agriculture and Forestry
                Microbiology & Virology
                Biotechnology
                Paleozoic
                World

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