Introduction: The C allele of the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP-1) rs1044498 polymorphism has previously been associated with increased binding of ENPP-1 to the insulin receptor (IR), resulting in decreased IR signalling and enhanced insulin resistance. It has also been associated with reduced kidney function in participants with diabetes of predominantly European and Asian descent. The association of this polymorphism with kidney disease in healthy Black South African participants has yet to be ascertained. Objective: This study, therefore, aimed to determine whether the K121Q polymorphism is associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a Black South African cohort. Methods: Black South African participants ( n = 348) from an existing cohort with known eGFR levels were genotyped for the K121Q polymorphism using PCR-RFLP and assessed for any statistical association between genotype and kidney function. Results: Individuals with the A allele had significantly lower eGFR levels than individuals with the CC genotype (86.52 ± 18.95 vs. 93.29 ± 23.55 mL/min; p = 0.022). The association of the A allele with lower eGFR levels remained after controlling for sex, blood pressure, insulin resistance, age, smoking, thyroid-stimulating hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and BMI ( R<sup>2</sup> = 0.030, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The rs1044498 A allele was significantly associated with lower eGFR levels in a cohort of apparently healthy Black South Africans, through an unknown mechanism that was independent of insulin resistance. It is possible that the rs1044498 polymorphism affects kidney function by altering the role of ENPP-1 in endothelial wound healing, podocyte signalling, or oxidative stress. Thus, the presence of this polymorphism may predispose individuals to a greater risk of CKD even in the absence of diabetes.