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      A Polymorphism in the Gene Encoding the Insulin Receptor Binding Protein ENPP-1 Is Associated with Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate in an Under-Investigated Indigenous African Population

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          Abstract

          Introduction: The C allele of the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP-1) rs1044498 polymorphism has previously been associated with increased binding of ENPP-1 to the insulin receptor (IR), resulting in decreased IR signalling and enhanced insulin resistance. It has also been associated with reduced kidney function in participants with diabetes of predominantly European and Asian descent. The association of this polymorphism with kidney disease in healthy Black South African participants has yet to be ascertained. Objective: This study, therefore, aimed to determine whether the K121Q polymorphism is associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a Black South African cohort. Methods: Black South African participants ( n = 348) from an existing cohort with known eGFR levels were genotyped for the K121Q polymorphism using PCR-RFLP and assessed for any statistical association between genotype and kidney function. Results: Individuals with the A allele had significantly lower eGFR levels than individuals with the CC genotype (86.52 ± 18.95 vs. 93.29 ± 23.55 mL/min; p = 0.022). The association of the A allele with lower eGFR levels remained after controlling for sex, blood pressure, insulin resistance, age, smoking, thyroid-stimulating hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and BMI ( R<sup>2</sup> = 0.030, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The rs1044498 A allele was significantly associated with lower eGFR levels in a cohort of apparently healthy Black South Africans, through an unknown mechanism that was independent of insulin resistance. It is possible that the rs1044498 polymorphism affects kidney function by altering the role of ENPP-1 in endothelial wound healing, podocyte signalling, or oxidative stress. Thus, the presence of this polymorphism may predispose individuals to a greater risk of CKD even in the absence of diabetes.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Proteomics. Tissue-based map of the human proteome.

          Resolving the molecular details of proteome variation in the different tissues and organs of the human body will greatly increase our knowledge of human biology and disease. Here, we present a map of the human tissue proteome based on an integrated omics approach that involves quantitative transcriptomics at the tissue and organ level, combined with tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry, to achieve spatial localization of proteins down to the single-cell level. Our tissue-based analysis detected more than 90% of the putative protein-coding genes. We used this approach to explore the human secretome, the membrane proteome, the druggable proteome, the cancer proteome, and the metabolic functions in 32 different tissues and organs. All the data are integrated in an interactive Web-based database that allows exploration of individual proteins, as well as navigation of global expression patterns, in all major tissues and organs in the human body. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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            A polymorphism (K121Q) of the human glycoprotein PC-1 gene coding region is strongly associated with insulin resistance.

            The genes responsible for insulin resistance are poorly defined. Plasma cell differentiation antigen (PC-1) glycoprotein inhibits insulin receptor signaling and is associated with insulin resistance. We describe here a novel polymorphism in exon 4 of the PC-1 gene (K121Q) and demonstrate that it is strongly associated with insulin resistance in 121 healthy nonobese (BMI <30 kg/m2) nondiabetic (by oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) Caucasians from Sicily. Compared with 80 KK subjects, Q allele carriers (n = 41, 39 KQ and 2 QQ) showed higher glucose and insulin levels during OGTT (P < 0.001 by two-way analysis of variance) and insulin resistance by euglycemic clamp (M value = 5.25 +/- 1.38 [n = 24] vs. 6.30 +/- 1.39 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) [n = 49], P = 0.005). Q carriers had higher risk of being hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant (odds ratio [CI]: 2.99 [1.28-7.0], P < 0.001). Insulin receptor autophosphorylation was reduced (P < 0.01) in cultured skin fibroblasts from KQ versus KK subjects. Skeletal muscle PC-1 content was not different in 11 KQ versus 32 KK subjects (33 +/- 16.1 vs. 17.5 +/- 15 ng/mg protein, P = 0.3). These results suggest a cause-effect relationship between the Q carrying genotype and the insulin resistance phenotype, and raise the possibility that PC-1 genotyping could identify individuals who are at risk of developing insulin resistance, a condition that predisposes to type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.
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              Body-mass index and risk of advanced chronic kidney disease: Prospective analyses from a primary care cohort of 1.4 million adults in England

              Background It is uncertain whether being overweight, but not obese, is associated with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and how the size and shape of associations between body-mass index (BMI) and advanced CKD differs among different types of people. Methods We used Clinical Practice Research Datalink records (2000–2014) with linkage to English secondary care and mortality data to identify a prospective cohort with at least one BMI measure. Cox models adjusted for age, sex, smoking and social deprivation and subgroup analyses by diabetes, hypertension and prior cardiovascular disease assessed relationships between BMI and CKD stages 4–5 and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Findings 1,405,016 adults aged 20–79 with mean BMI 27.4kg/m2 (SD 5.6) were followed for 7.5 years. Compared to a BMI of 20 to <25kg/m2, higher BMI was associated with a progressively increased risk of CKD stages 4–5 (hazard ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.30–1.38 for BMI 25 to <30kg/m2; 1.94, 1.87–2.01 for BMI 30 to <35kg/m2; and 3.10, 2.95–3.25 for BMI ≥35kg/m2). The association between BMI and ESRD was shallower and reversed at low BMI. Current smoking, prior diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease all increased risk of CKD, but the relative strength and shape of BMI-CKD associations, which were generally log-linear above a BMI of 25kg/m2, were similar among those with and without these risk factors. There was direct evidence that being overweight was associated with increased risk of CKD stages 4–5 in these subgroups. Assuming causality, since 2000 an estimated 39% (36–42%) of advanced CKD in women and 26% (22–30%) in men aged 40–79 resulted from being overweight or obese. Conclusions This study provides direct evidence that being overweight increases risk of advanced CKD, that being obese substantially increases such risk, and that this remains true for those with and without diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease. Strategies to reduce weight among those who are overweight, as well as those who are obese may reduce CKD risk, with each unit reduction in BMI yielding similar relative reductions in risk.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2020
                December 2020
                03 December 2020
                : 45
                : 6
                : 1009-1017
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Chemical Pathology, University of the Witwatersrand Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg, South Africa
                bNational Health Laboratory Service University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
                Author notes
                *Eleanor M. Cave, Faculty of Health Sciences, Wits Medical School,, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg 2192 (South Africa), eleanor.cave@wits.ac.za
                Article
                511213 Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45:1009–1017
                10.1159/000511213
                33271541
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Article

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