11
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
2 collections
    0
    shares

      Publish your biodiversity research with us!

      Submit your article here.

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      A new genus and species of fairyfly, Tinkerbella nana (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae), with comments on its sister genus Kikiki, and discussion on small size limits in arthropods

      ,
      Journal of Hymenoptera Research
      Pensoft Publishers

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          A new genus and species of fairyfly, Tinkerbella nana (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) gen. n. and sp. n., is described from Costa Rica. It is compared with the related genus Kikiki Huber and Beardsley from the Hawaiian Islands, Costa Rica and Trinidad. A specimen of Kikiki huna Huber measured 158 µm long, thus holding the record for the smallest winged insect. The smallest size possible, as measured by body length, for flying insects and wingless arthropods is discussed.

          Related collections

          Most cited references10

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Synthesis and properties of crosslinked recombinant pro-resilin.

          Resilin is a member of a family of elastic proteins that includes elastin, as well as gluten, gliadin, abductin and spider silks. Resilin is found in specialized regions of the cuticle of most insects, providing low stiffness, high strain and efficient energy storage; it is best known for its roles in insect flight and the remarkable jumping ability of fleas and spittle bugs. Previously, the Drosophila melanogaster CG15920 gene was tentatively identified as one encoding a resilin-like protein (pro-resilin). Here we report the cloning and expression of the first exon of the Drosophila CG15920 gene as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli. We show that this recombinant protein can be cast into a rubber-like biomaterial by rapid photochemical crosslinking. This observation validates the role of the putative elastic repeat motif in resilin function. The resilience (recovery after deformation) of crosslinked recombinant resilin was found to exceed that of unfilled synthetic polybutadiene, a high resilience rubber. We believe that our work will greatly facilitate structural investigations into the functional properties of resilin and shed light on more general aspects of the structure of elastomeric proteins. In addition, the ability to rapidly cast samples of this biomaterial may enable its use in situ for both industrial and biomedical applications.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A computational fluid dynamics of 'clap and fling' in the smallest insects.

            In this paper, we have used the immersed boundary method to solve the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for two immersed wings performing an idealized 'clap and fling' stroke and a 'fling' half-stroke. We calculated lift coefficients as functions of time per wing for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) between 8 and 128. We also calculated the instantaneous streamlines around each wing throughout the stroke cycle and related the changes in lift to the relative strength and position of the leading and trailing edge vortices. Our results show that lift generation per wing during the 'clap and fling' of two wings when compared to the average lift produced by one wing with the same motion falls into two distinct patterns. For Re=64 and higher, lift is initially enhanced during the rotation of two wings when lift coefficients are compared to the case of one wing. Lift coefficients after fling and during the translational part of the stroke oscillate as the leading and trailing edge vortices are alternately shed. In addition, the lift coefficients are not substantially greater in the two-winged case than in the one-winged case. This differs from three-dimensional insect flight where the leading edge vortices remain attached to the wing throughout each half-stroke. For Re=32 and lower, lift coefficients per wing are also enhanced during wing rotation when compared to the case of one wing rotating with the same motion. Remarkably, lift coefficients following two-winged fling during the translational phase are also enhanced when compared to the one-winged case. Indeed, they begin about 70% higher than the one-winged case during pure translation. When averaged over the entire translational part of the stroke, lift coefficients per wing are 35% higher for the two-winged case during a 4.5 chord translation following fling. In addition, lift enhancement increases with decreasing Re. This result suggests that the Weis-Fogh mechanism of lift generation has greater benefit to insects flying at lower Re. Drag coefficients produced during fling are also substantially higher for the two-winged case than the one-winged case, particularly at lower Re.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              How small can small be: the compound eye of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma evanescens (Westwood, 1833) (Hymenoptera, Hexapoda), an insect of 0.3- to 0.4-mm total body size.

              With a body length of only 0.3-0.4 mm, the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma evanescens (Westwood) is one of the smallest insects known. Yet, despite its diminutive size, it possesses compound eyes that are of oval shapes, measuring across their long axes in dorsoventral direction 63.39 and 71.11 μm in males and females, respectively. The corresponding facet diameters are 5.90 μm for males and 6.39 μm for females. Owing to the small radii of curvature of the eyes in males (34.59 μm) and females (42.82 μm), individual ommatidia are short with respective lengths of 24.29 and 34.97 μm. The eyes are of the apposition kind, and each ommatidium possesses four cone cells of the eucone type and a centrally fused rhabdom, which throughout its length is formed by no more than eight retinula cells. A ninth cell occupies the place of the eighth retinula cell in the distal third of the rhabdom. The cone is shielded by two primary and six secondary pigment cells, all with no apparent extensions to the basement membrane, unlike the case in larger hymenopterans. The regular and dense packing of the rhabdoms reflects an effective use of space. Calculations on the optics of the eyes of Trichogramma suggest that the eyes need not be diffraction limited, provided they use mostly shorter wavelengths, that is, UV light. Publications on the visual behavior of these wasps confirm Trichogramma's sensitivity to UV radiation. On the basis of our findings, some general functional conclusions for very small compound eyes are formulated.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                April 24 2013
                April 24 2013
                : 32
                : 17-44
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.32.4663
                325ee044-f785-48dd-9e96-ec0ee2b6ce30
                © 2013

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article