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      A review on microalgae cultivation and harvesting, and their biomass extraction processing using ionic liquids


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          The richness of high-value bio-compounds derived from microalgae has made microalgae a promising and sustainable source of useful product. The present work starts with a review on the usage of open pond and photobioreactor in culturing various microalgae strains, followed by an in-depth evaluation on the common harvesting techniques used to collect microalgae from culture medium. The harvesting methods discussed include filtration, centrifugation, flocculation, and flotation. Additionally, the advanced extraction technologies using ionic liquids as extractive solvents applied to extract high-value bio-compounds such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and other bioactive compounds from microalgae biomass are summarized and discussed. However, more work needs to be done to fully utilize the potential of microalgae biomass for the application in large-scale production of biofuels, food additives, and nutritive supplements.

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          Biodiesel from microalgae.

          Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel derived from oil crops is a potential renewable and carbon neutral alternative to petroleum fuels. Unfortunately, biodiesel from oil crops, waste cooking oil and animal fat cannot realistically satisfy even a small fraction of the existing demand for transport fuels. As demonstrated here, microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Like plants, microalgae use sunlight to produce oils but they do so more efficiently than crop plants. Oil productivity of many microalgae greatly exceeds the oil productivity of the best producing oil crops. Approaches for making microalgal biodiesel economically competitive with petrodiesel are discussed.
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            Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: A review

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              The promising future of microalgae: current status, challenges, and optimization of a sustainable and renewable industry for biofuels, feed, and other products

              Microalgae have recently attracted considerable interest worldwide, due to their extensive application potential in the renewable energy, biopharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Microalgae are renewable, sustainable, and economical sources of biofuels, bioactive medicinal products, and food ingredients. Several microalgae species have been investigated for their potential as value-added products with remarkable pharmacological and biological qualities. As biofuels, they are a perfect substitute to liquid fossil fuels with respect to cost, renewability, and environmental concerns. Microalgae have a significant ability to convert atmospheric CO2 to useful products such as carbohydrates, lipids, and other bioactive metabolites. Although microalgae are feasible sources for bioenergy and biopharmaceuticals in general, some limitations and challenges remain, which must be overcome to upgrade the technology from pilot-phase to industrial level. The most challenging and crucial issues are enhancing microalgae growth rate and product synthesis, dewatering algae culture for biomass production, pretreating biomass, and optimizing the fermentation process in case of algal bioethanol production. The present review describes the advantages of microalgae for the production of biofuels and various bioactive compounds and discusses culturing parameters.

                Author and article information

                Taylor & Francis
                24 January 2020
                : 11
                : 1
                : 116-129
                [a ]Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia , Semenyih, Malaysia
                [b ]Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Science, UCSI University , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [c ]Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Sungai Long Campus , Kajang, Malaysia
                [d ]School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia , Selangor, Malaysia
                [e ]Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS , Perak, Malaysia
                [f ]Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS , Seri Iskandar, Malaysia
                [g ]Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS , Seri Iskandar, Malaysia
                [h ]State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology , Harbin, China
                Author notes
                CONTACT Pau Loke Show showpauloke@ 123456gmail.com Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia , Semenyih, Malaysia
                Author information
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 20 September 2019
                : 12 December 2019
                : 12 December 2019
                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 123, Pages: 14
                Funded by: Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) research
                Award ID: IPSR/RMC/UTARRF/2019-C1/L05
                The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) research grant [Grant number: IPSR/RMC/UTARRF/2019-C1/L05].
                Special focus on Algal Bioprocess Engineering

                Biomedical engineering
                microalgae,cultivation,harvesting,extraction,ionic liquids,downstream processing


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