Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are well known to have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease from epidemiological studies. Recently, CKD has also been shown to be related to neurological disorders, not only ischemic brain injury but also cognitive impairment. This cerebrorenal connection is considered to involve small vessel disease in both the kidney and brain, based on their hemodynamic similarities. Clinical studies suggest that markers for CKD such as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria, and albuminuria may be helpful to predict brain small vessel disease, white matter lesions (WMLs), silent brain ischemia (SBI), and microhemorrhages. Recently, changes in the vascular system of the brain have been shown to contribute to the onset and progression of cognitive impairment, not only vascular dementia but also Alzheimer's disease. Patients with CKD are also reported to have higher risk of impaired cognitive function in the future compared with non-CKD subjects. These results indicate that CKD markers may be helpful to predict the future risk of neuronal disease.