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      PLA- and PLA/PLGA-Emulsion Composite Biomaterial Sheets for the Controllable Sustained Release of Hydrophilic Compounds

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      Materials

      MDPI

      sheet, emulsion, sustained release, biomaterial, PLA, PLGA

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          Abstract

          In the present study, by spin-coating a solution containing w/o (water-in-oil) emulsions and hydrophobic polymers, we obtained sheets possessing uniformly dispersed w/o emulsions. We performed release experiments for more than 100 days and clarified the effects of the number of layers, the sheet-forming polymers (polylactide (PLA), poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid (PLGA)), the ratio of organic solvent to water, and the composition of block copolymers on the release properties of the sheets. For a variety of sheets, we successfully achieved the sustained release of compounds from the sheets for 100–150 days. The sustained-release of compounds occurred because the compounds had to diffuse into polymer networks after their release from the emulsions. Interestingly, we observed an inflection point in the release profiles at around 50 days; that is, the sheet exhibited a “two-step” release behavior. The results obtained in the present study provide strong evidence for the future possibility of the time-programmed release of multiple compounds from sheets.

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          Recent advances on the development of wound dressings for diabetic foot ulcer treatment--a review.

          Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a chronic, non-healing complication of diabetes that lead to high hospital costs and, in extreme cases, to amputation. Diabetic neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, abnormal cellular and cytokine/chemokine activity are among the main factors that hinder diabetic wound repair. DFUs represent a current and important challenge in the development of novel and efficient wound dressings. In general, an ideal wound dressing should provide a moist wound environment, offer protection from secondary infections, remove wound exudate and promote tissue regeneration. However, no existing dressing fulfills all the requirements associated with DFU treatment and the choice of the correct dressing depends on the wound type and stage, injury extension, patient condition and the tissues involved. Currently, there are different types of commercially available wound dressings that can be used for DFU treatment which differ on their application modes, materials, shape and on the methods employed for production. Dressing materials can include natural, modified and synthetic polymers, as well as their mixtures or combinations, processed in the form of films, foams, hydrocolloids and hydrogels. Moreover, wound dressings may be employed as medicated systems, through the delivery of healing enhancers and therapeutic substances (drugs, growth factors, peptides, stem cells and/or other bioactive substances). This work reviews the state of the art and the most recent advances in the development of wound dressings for DFU treatment. Special emphasis is given to systems employing new polymeric biomaterials, and to the latest and innovative therapeutic strategies and delivery approaches. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            PEG - a versatile conjugating ligand for drugs and drug delivery systems.

            Polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugation is a rapidly evolving strategy to solve hurdles in therapeutic delivery and is being used as an add-on tool to the traditional drug delivery methods. Chemically, PEGylation is a term used to denote modification of therapeutic molecules by conjugation with PEG. Efforts are constantly being made to develop novel strategies for conjugation of PEG with these molecules in order to increase its current applications. These strategies are specific to the therapeutic system used and also depend on the availability of activated PEGylating agents. Therefore, a prior knowledge is essential in selecting appropriate method for PEGylation. Once achieved, a successful PEGylation can amend the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcomes of therapeutics. Specifically, the primary interest is in their ability to decrease uptake by reticuloendothelial system, prolong blood residence, decrease degradation by metabolic enzymes and reduce protein immunogenicity. The extensive research in this field has resulted into many clinical studies. The knowledge of outcome of these studies gave a good feedback and lessons which helped researchers to redesign PEG conjugates with improved features which can increase the chance of hitting the market. In light of this, the current paper highlights the approaches, novel strategies and the utilization of modern concept for PEG conjugation with respect to various bioactive components of clinical relevance. Moreover, this review also discusses potential clinical outcomes of the PEG conjugation, regulatory approved PEGylated product, clinical trials for newer formulations, and also provides future prospects of this technology.
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              Recent applications of PLGA based nanostructures in drug delivery

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                MDPI
                1996-1944
                19 December 2018
                December 2018
                : 11
                : 12
                Affiliations
                Department of Organic and Polymer Materials Chemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan; muralab-tuat@ 123456y3.dion.ne.jp (H.M.); s162591s@ 123456st.go.tuat.ac.jp (S.S.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: muray@ 123456cc.tuat.ac.jp ; Tel.: +81-42-388-7387
                Article
                materials-11-02588
                10.3390/ma11122588
                6316162
                30572611
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                plga, sheet, emulsion, sustained release, biomaterial, pla

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