+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Applications of 2D MXenes in energy conversion and storage systems

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          This article provides a comprehensive review of MXene materials and their energy-related applications.


          Transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes), a family of two-dimensional (2D) inorganic compounds, are materials composed of a few atomic layers of transition metal carbides, nitrides, or carbonitrides. Ti 3C 2, the first 2D layered MXene, was isolated in 2011. This material, which is a layered bulk material analogous to graphite, was derived from its 3D phase, Ti 3AlC 2 MAX. Since then, material scientists have either determined or predicted the stable phases of >200 different MXenes based on combinations of various transition metals such as Ti, Mo, V, Cr, and their alloys with C and N. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have shown their exciting potential for energy conversion and electrochemical storage. To this end, we comprehensively summarize the current advances in MXene research. We begin by reviewing the structure types and morphologies and their fabrication routes. The review then discusses the mechanical, electrical, optical, and electrochemical properties of MXenes. The focus then turns to their exciting potential in energy storage and conversion. Energy storage applications include electrodes in rechargeable lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, lithium–sulfur batteries, and supercapacitors. In terms of energy conversion, photocatalytic fuel production, such as hydrogen evolution from water splitting, and carbon dioxide reduction are presented. The potential of MXenes for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water, such as dye waste, is also addressed, along with their promise as catalysts for ammonium synthesis from nitrogen. Finally, their application potential is summarized.

          Related collections

          Most cited references775

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Toward Safe Lithium Metal Anode in Rechargeable Batteries: A Review.

          The lithium metal battery is strongly considered to be one of the most promising candidates for high-energy-density energy storage devices in our modern and technology-based society. However, uncontrollable lithium dendrite growth induces poor cycling efficiency and severe safety concerns, dragging lithium metal batteries out of practical applications. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the lithium metal anode and its dendritic lithium growth. First, the working principles and technical challenges of a lithium metal anode are underscored. Specific attention is paid to the mechanistic understandings and quantitative models for solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, lithium dendrite nucleation, and growth. On the basis of previous theoretical understanding and analysis, recently proposed strategies to suppress dendrite growth of lithium metal anode and some other metal anodes are reviewed. A section dedicated to the potential of full-cell lithium metal batteries for practical applications is included. A general conclusion and a perspective on the current limitations and recommended future research directions of lithium metal batteries are presented. The review concludes with an attempt at summarizing the theoretical and experimental achievements in lithium metal anodes and endeavors to realize the practical applications of lithium metal batteries.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires.

            There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices. Silicon is an attractive anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4,200 mAh g(-1); ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much larger than various nitride and oxide materials, silicon anodes have limited applications because silicon's volume changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading. Here, we show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              High-performance electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction derived from polyaniline, iron, and cobalt.

              The prohibitive cost of platinum for catalyzing the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has hampered the widespread use of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. We describe a family of non-precious metal catalysts that approach the performance of platinum-based systems at a cost sustainable for high-power fuel cell applications, possibly including automotive power. The approach uses polyaniline as a precursor to a carbon-nitrogen template for high-temperature synthesis of catalysts incorporating iron and cobalt. The most active materials in the group catalyze the ORR at potentials within ~60 millivolts of that delivered by state-of-the-art carbon-supported platinum, combining their high activity with remarkable performance stability for non-precious metal catalysts (700 hours at a fuel cell voltage of 0.4 volts) as well as excellent four-electron selectivity (hydrogen peroxide yield <1.0%).

                Author and article information

                Chemical Society Reviews
                Chem. Soc. Rev.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                January 2 2019
                : 48
                : 1
                : 72-133
                [1 ]The Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden (IFW Dresden)
                [2 ]Dresden
                [3 ]Germany
                [4 ]Institute for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (iAIR)
                [5 ]University of Jinan
                [6 ]Soochow Institute for Energy and Materials InnovationS (SIEMIS)
                [7 ]Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Carbon Materials and Wearable Energy Technologies of Jiangsu Province
                [8 ]School of Energy
                [9 ]Soochow University
                [10 ]Suzhou
                [11 ]Jinan 250022
                [12 ]China
                [13 ]State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials
                © 2019


                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C8CS00324F


                Comment on this article