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      Antibiotic susceptibility, heteroresistance, and updated treatment strategies in Helicobacter pylori infection

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          Abstract

          In this review, we discuss the problem of antibiotic resistance, heteroresistance, the utility of cultures and antibiotic susceptibility tests in Helicobacter pylori ( Hp) eradication, as well as the updated treatment strategies for this infection. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing all over the world, especially for metronidazole and clarithromycin, because of their heavy use in some geographical areas. Heteroresistance (simultaneous presence of both susceptible and resistant strains in different sites of a single stomach) is another important issue, as an isolate could be mistakenly considered susceptible if a single biopsy is used for antimicrobial tests. We also examined literature data regarding eradication success rates of culture-guided and empiric therapies. The empiric therapy and the one based on susceptibility testing, in Hp eradication, may depend on several factors such as concomitant diseases, the number of previous antibiotic treatments, differences in bacterial virulence in individuals with positive or negative cultures, together with local antibiotic resistance patterns in real-world settings. Updated treatment strategies in Hp infection presented in the guidelines of the Toronto Consensus Group (2016) are reported. These suggest to prolong eradication therapy up to 14 days, replacing the old triple therapy with a quadruple therapy based on proton pump inhibitor (PPI), bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline for most of the patients, or as an alternative quadruple therapy without bismuth, based on the use of PPI, amoxicillin, metronidazole, and clarithromycin. The new drug vonoprazan, a first-in-class potassium-competitive acid blocker recently approved in Japan, is also considered to be a promising solution for Hp eradication, even for clarithromycin-resistant strains. Furthermore, there is growing interest in finding new therapeutic strategies, such as the development of vaccines or the use of natural resources, including probiotics, plants, or nutraceuticals.

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          Most cited references 97

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          Classification and grading of gastritis. The updated Sydney System. International Workshop on the Histopathology of Gastritis, Houston 1994.

          The Sydney System for the classification of gastritis emphasized the importance of combining topographical, morphological, and etiological information into a schema that would help to generate reproducible and clinically useful diagnoses. To reappraise the Sydney System 4 years after its introduction, a group of gastrointestinal pathologists from various parts of the world met in Houston, Texas, in September 1994. The aims of the workshop were (a) to establish an agreed terminology of gastritis; (b) to identify, define, and attempt to resolve some of the problems associated with the Sydney System. This article introduces the Sydney System as it was revised at the Houston Gastritis Workshop and represents the consensus of the participants. Overall, the principles and grading of the Sydney System were only slightly modified, the grading being aided by the provision of a visual analogue scale. The terminology of the final classification has been improved to emphasize the distinction between the atrophic and nonatrophic stomach; the names used for each entity were selected because they are generally acceptable to both pathologists and gastroenterologists. In addition to the main categories and atrophic and nonatrophic gastritis, the special or distinctive forms are described and their respective diagnostic criteria are provided. The article includes practical guidelines for optimal biopsy sampling of the stomach, for the use of the visual analogue scales for grading the histopathologic features, and for the formulation of a comprehensive standardized diagnosis. A glossary of gastritis-related terms as used in this article is provided.
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            Helicobacter pylori treatment in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance.

            With few exceptions, the most commonly recommended triple Helicobacter pylori regimen (proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin and clarithromycin) now provides unacceptably low treatment success. A review of worldwide results suggests that successful eradication using a triple regimen is not consistently observed in any population. Clinicians should use 'only use what works locally' and ignore consensus statements and society guidelines if they are not consistent with local results. Clinical trials should be result based, with the goal of identifying regimens with >90-95% success. New treatments should be only be compared with the currently locally effective treatment (>90%) or a historical untreated control (which has been shown to reliably yield 0% eradication); trials using placebos or treatments known to be inferior are with rare exceptions unethical. If a highly effective regimen is not available locally, we recommend trying a 14 day concomitant quadruple treatment regimen containing a PPI, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and a nitroimidazole; 10 day sequential treatment (PPI plus amoxicillin for 5 days followed by a PPI, clarithromycin and a nitroimidazole for 5 days); or 14 day bismuth-containing quadruple treatments. Treatments needing further evaluation include those containing furazolidone or nitazoxanide, hybrids of sequential-concomitant therapies and amoxicillin-PPI dual therapy with PPI doses such that they maintain intragastric pH >6.
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              H pylori antibiotic resistance: prevalence, importance, and advances in testing.

               F. Mégraud (2004)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                28 July 2017
                : 11
                : 2209-2220
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases
                [2 ]Department of Cardio-Thoracic, Vascular, General Surgery and of Organ Transplants, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Maria Teresa Mascellino, Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Policlinico Umberto I°Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy, Tel +39 6 4997 0880, Fax +39 6 4997 2628, Email mariateresa.mascellino@ 123456uniroma1.it
                Article
                dddt-11-2209
                10.2147/DDDT.S136240
                5546184
                © 2017 Mascellino et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                rescue, biopsies, eradication

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