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      Sugar transporters enable a leaf beetle to accumulate plant defense compounds

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          Abstract

          Many herbivorous insects selectively accumulate plant toxins for defense against predators; however, little is known about the transport processes that enable insects to absorb and store defense compounds in the body. Here, we investigate how a specialist herbivore, the horseradish flea beetle, accumulates glucosinolate defense compounds from Brassicaceae in the hemolymph. Using phylogenetic analyses of coleopteran major facilitator superfamily transporters, we identify a clade of glucosinolate-specific transporters ( PaGTRs) belonging to the sugar porter family. PaGTRs are predominantly expressed in the excretory system, the Malpighian tubules. Silencing of PaGTRs leads to elevated glucosinolate excretion, significantly reducing the levels of sequestered glucosinolates in beetles. This suggests that PaGTRs reabsorb glucosinolates from the Malpighian tubule lumen to prevent their loss by excretion. Ramsay assays corroborated the selective retention of glucosinolates by Malpighian tubules of P. armoraciae in situ. Thus, the selective accumulation of plant defense compounds in herbivorous insects can depend on the ability to prevent excretion.

          Abstract

          The herbivorous horseradish flea beetle sequesters plant toxins to defend against predators. Here the authors identify glucosinolate transporters expressed in the beetle Malpighian tubules and provide evidence that these reabsorb glucosinolates from the tubule lumen to prevent their loss by excretion.

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          MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets.

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            IQ-TREE: A Fast and Effective Stochastic Algorithm for Estimating Maximum-Likelihood Phylogenies

            Large phylogenomics data sets require fast tree inference methods, especially for maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenies. Fast programs exist, but due to inherent heuristics to find optimal trees, it is not clear whether the best tree is found. Thus, there is need for additional approaches that employ different search strategies to find ML trees and that are at the same time as fast as currently available ML programs. We show that a combination of hill-climbing approaches and a stochastic perturbation method can be time-efficiently implemented. If we allow the same CPU time as RAxML and PhyML, then our software IQ-TREE found higher likelihoods between 62.2% and 87.1% of the studied alignments, thus efficiently exploring the tree-space. If we use the IQ-TREE stopping rule, RAxML and PhyML are faster in 75.7% and 47.1% of the DNA alignments and 42.2% and 100% of the protein alignments, respectively. However, the range of obtaining higher likelihoods with IQ-TREE improves to 73.3-97.1%.
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              Ror2 signaling regulates Golgi structure and transport through IFT20 for tumor invasiveness

              Signaling through the Ror2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes invadopodia formation for tumor invasion. Here, we identify intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20) as a new target of this signaling in tumors that lack primary cilia, and find that IFT20 mediates the ability of Ror2 signaling to induce the invasiveness of these tumors. We also find that IFT20 regulates the nucleation of Golgi-derived microtubules by affecting the GM130-AKAP450 complex, which promotes Golgi ribbon formation in achieving polarized secretion for cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, IFT20 promotes the efficiency of transport through the Golgi complex. These findings shed new insights into how Ror2 signaling promotes tumor invasiveness, and also advance the understanding of how Golgi structure and transport can be regulated.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                fberan@ice.mpg.de
                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-1723
                11 May 2021
                11 May 2021
                2021
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.418160.a, ISNI 0000 0004 0491 7131, Research Group Sequestration and Detoxification in Insects, , Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, ; Jena, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.5254.6, ISNI 0000 0001 0674 042X, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, DynaMo Center, , University of Copenhagen, ; Frederiksberg, Denmark
                [3 ]GRID grid.418160.a, ISNI 0000 0004 0491 7131, Department of Entomology, , Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, ; Jena, Germany
                [4 ]GRID grid.418160.a, ISNI 0000 0004 0491 7131, Department of Biochemistry, , Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, ; Jena, Germany
                Article
                22982
                10.1038/s41467-021-22982-8
                8113468
                33976202
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001732, Danmarks Grundforskningsfond (Danish National Research Foundation);
                Award ID: DNRF99
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100008367, Statens Naturvidenskabelige Forskningsrad (Danish National Science Foundation);
                Award ID: DNRF99
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2021

                Uncategorized

                chemical ecology, ecophysiology, coevolution, entomology

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