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      Academic achievement and the effects of the student’s learning context: a study on PISA data Translated title: Rendimiento escolar y efectos del contexto de aprendizaje del estudiante: un estudio sobre los datos del PISA Translated title: Desempenho Escolar e Efeitos do Contexto de Aprendizagem do Estudante: Um Estudo sobre os Dados do PISA

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          Abstract

          Abstract School achievement is under a multiple factorial context related to student, school and family (SSF). Based on 23.141 Brazilians self-reports, obtained from PISA 2015, representative SSF measures were selected, and their impacts measured on school performance scores in mathematics, reading and science. The feeling of belonging to the school (BELONG) and parents’ emotional support (EMOSUPS) were strongly correlated with the three investigated performances. EMOSUPS affected how the student feels at school and when being assessed. And the educational and cultural resources of the home affected EEC three dimensions, increasing EMOSUPS, BELONG and school performance, and decreasing anxiety during assessments. Thus, the importance of the school and family environments on students’ performance is reiterated and calls for public policies in education that considers the three dimensions.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen El rendimiento escolar se comprende bajo un contexto factorial múltiple, relacionado con el estudiante, la escuela y la familia (EEF). Con base en 23.141 autoinformes de brasileños, obtenidos del examen PISA 2015, se seleccionaron medidas de EEF representativas y se midieron sus impactos en los puntajes de rendimiento escolar en matemáticas, lectura y ciencias. El sentimiento de pertenencia a la escuela (BELONG) y el apoyo emocional de los padres (EMOSUPS) se correlacionaron estrechamente con los tres desempeños investigados. El EMOSUPS influyó en cómo se siente el estudiante, tanto en la escuela como cuando está siendo evaluado. Los recursos educativos y culturales del hogar afectaron a las tres dimensiones del EEC, aumentando el EMOSUPS, BELONG y el rendimiento escolar, y disminuyendo la ansiedad durante las evaluaciones. Ante estos resultados, se reitera la importancia del entorno escolar y familiar en el rendimiento de los estudiantes y la necesidad de que las políticas públicas en educación consideren estas tres dimensiones.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo O desempenho escolar está sujeito a um contexto de múltiplos fatores, relacionados ao estudante, escola e família (EEF). A partir de autorrelatos de 23.141 brasileiros, obtidos do PISA 2015, foram selecionadas medidas representativas de EEF e medidos seus impactos sobre escores de desempenho escolar em matemática, leitura e ciências. Registrou-se forte correlação entre a sensação de pertencimento à escola (BELONG) e suporte emocional da família (EMOSUPS) com os três desempenhos investigados; o EMOSUPS teve efeito sobre como o estudante se sente na escola e quando é avaliado; os recursos educacionais e culturais do lar afetaram as três dimensões de EEC, no sentido de aumentar o EMOSUPS, BELONG, e os desempenhos escolares e diminuição da ansiedade durante avaliações. Reitera-se assim a importância do ambiente escolar e da família sobre o desempenho dos estudantes, e a necessidade de essas dimensões serem alvo de políticas públicas na área da educação.

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          Most cited references 38

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          The nature of nurture: Effects of parental genotypes

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            The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics.

            Amid ongoing public speculation about the reasons for sex differences in careers in science and mathematics, we present a consensus statement that is based on the best available scientific evidence. Sex differences in science and math achievement and ability are smaller for the mid-range of the abilities distribution than they are for those with the highest levels of achievement and ability. Males are more variable on most measures of quantitative and visuospatial ability, which necessarily results in more males at both high- and low-ability extremes; the reasons why males are often more variable remain elusive. Successful careers in math and science require many types of cognitive abilities. Females tend to excel in verbal abilities, with large differences between females and males found when assessments include writing samples. High-level achievement in science and math requires the ability to communicate effectively and comprehend abstract ideas, so the female advantage in writing should be helpful in all academic domains. Males outperform females on most measures of visuospatial abilities, which have been implicated as contributing to sex differences on standardized exams in mathematics and science. An evolutionary account of sex differences in mathematics and science supports the conclusion that, although sex differences in math and science performance have not directly evolved, they could be indirectly related to differences in interests and specific brain and cognitive systems. We review the brain basis for sex differences in science and mathematics, describe consistent effects, and identify numerous possible correlates. Experience alters brain structures and functioning, so causal statements about brain differences and success in math and science are circular. A wide range of sociocultural forces contribute to sex differences in mathematics and science achievement and ability-including the effects of family, neighborhood, peer, and school influences; training and experience; and cultural practices. We conclude that early experience, biological factors, educational policy, and cultural context affect the number of women and men who pursue advanced study in science and math and that these effects add and interact in complex ways. There are no single or simple answers to the complex questions about sex differences in science and mathematics.
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              Parental involvement in middle school: a meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement.

              Early adolescence is often marked by changes in school context, family relationships, and developmental processes. In the context of these changes, academic performance often declines, while at the same time the long-term implications of academic performance increase. In promoting achievement across elementary and secondary school levels, the significant role of families, family-school relations, and parental involvement in education has been highlighted. Although there is a growing body of literature focusing on parental involvement in education during middle school, this research has not been systematically examined to determine which types of involvement have the strongest relation with achievement. The authors conducted a meta-analysis on the existing research on parental involvement in middle school to determine whether and which types of parental involvement are related to achievement. Across 50 studies, parental involvement was positively associated with achievement, with the exception of parental help with homework. Involvement that reflected academic socialization had the strongest positive association with achievement. Based on the known characteristics of the developmental stage and tasks of adolescence, strategies reflecting academic socialization are most consistent with the developmental stage of early adolescence. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                pusf
                Psico-USF
                Psico-USF
                Universidade de São Francisco, Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Psicologia (Campinas, SP, Brazil )
                1413-8271
                2175-3563
                January 2021
                : 26
                : 1
                : 13-25
                Affiliations
                Ribeirão Preto orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo Brazil
                Bauru orgnameUniversidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
                Article
                S1413-82712021000100013 S1413-8271(21)02600100013
                10.1590/1413-82712021260102
                327e2889-54d5-42fc-9380-013032acc182

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 13
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