02 April 2021
In clinical trials, sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT) inhibitor use as adjunct to insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes (T1D) provides glucometabolic benefits while diabetic ketoacidosis risk is increased. The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin was evaluated in two phase III trials: EASE-2 and EASE-3. A low, 2.5-mg dose was included in EASE-3 only. As the efficacy of higher empagliflozin doses (i.e., 10 and 25 mg) in T1D has been established in EASE-2 and EASE-3, a modeling and simulation approach was used to generate additional supportive evidence on efficacy for the 2.5-mg dose. We present the methodology behind the development and validation of two modeling and simulation frameworks: M-EASE-1, a semi-mechanistic model integrating information on insulin, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin; and M-EASE-2, a descriptive model informed by prior information. Both models were developed independently of data from EASE-3. Simulations based on these models assessed efficacy in untested clinical trial scenarios. In this manner, the models provide supportive evidence for efficacy of low-dose empagliflozin 2.5 mg in patients with T1D, illustrating how pharmacometric analyses can support efficacy assessments in the context of limited data.