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      Depression and All-Cause Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: There are limited data regarding the relationship between depression and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: Among 323 patients receiving maintenance HD, depression symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, with a score of ≥16 consistent with depression. Adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models with additional analyses incorporating antidepressant medication use were used to evaluate the association between depression and mortality. Baseline CES-D scores were used for the primary analyses, while secondary time-dependent analyses incorporated subsequent CES-D results. Results: The mean age was 62.9 ± 16.5 years, 46% of the subjects were women and 22% were African-American. The mean baseline CES-D score was 10.7± 8.3, and 83 (26%) participants had CES-D scores ≥16. During a median (25th, 75th) follow-up of 25 (13, 43) months, 154 participants died. After adjusting for age, sex, race, primary cause of kidney failure, dialysis vintage and access, baseline depression was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.51 and 95% CI 1.06-2.17). This attenuated with further adjustment for cardiovascular disease, smoking, Kt/V, serum albumin, log C-reactive protein and use of antidepressants (HR 1.21 and 95% CI 0.82-1.80). When evaluating time-dependent CES-D, depression remained associated with increased mortality risk in the fully adjusted model (HR 1.44 and 95% CI 1.00-2.06). Conclusions: Greater symptoms of depression are associated with an increased risk of mortality in HD patients, particularly when accounting for the most proximate assessment. This relationship was attenuated with adjustment for comorbid conditions, suggesting a complex relationship between clinical characteristics and depression symptoms. Future studies should evaluate whether treatment for depression impacts mortality among HD patients.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Depression is an important contributor to low medication adherence in hemodialyzed patients and transplant recipients.

          End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a growing public health concern and non-adherence to treatment has been associated with poorer health outcomes in this population. Depression, likely to be the most common psychopathology in such patients, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We compared psychological measures and self-reported medication adherence of 94 kidney transplant recipients to those of 65 patients receiving hemodialysis in a major medical center in Brooklyn, New York. Compared to the transplant group, the hemodialysis cohort was significantly more depressed as determined by the Beck Depression Inventory score. They also had a significantly lower adherence to medication as reported on the Medication Therapy Adherence Scale. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, the variance in depression was the only statistically significant predictor of medication adherence beyond gender and mode of treatment, accounting for an additional 12% of the variance. Our study strongly suggests that a depressive affect is an important contributor to low medication adherence in patients with ESRD on hemodialysis or kidney transplant recipients.
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            Death or hospitalization of patients on chronic hemodialysis is associated with a physician-based diagnosis of depression.

            Depressive symptoms, assessed using a self-report type of questionnaire, have been associated with poor outcomes in dialysis patients. Here we determined if depressive disorders diagnosed by physicians are also associated with such outcomes. Ninety-eight consecutive patients on chronic hemodialysis underwent the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders administered by a physician. Depression was diagnosed in about a quarter of the patients. Associations adjusted for age, gender, race, time on dialysis and co-morbidity were determined using survival analysis. Using time to event (death or hospitalization) models of analysis the hazard ratios were 2.11 and 2.07 in unadjusted and adjusted models respectively. The finding of poor outcome using a formal structured physician interview suggests that a prospective study is needed to determine whether treatment of depression affects clinical outcomes.
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              The predictive value of self-report scales compared with physician diagnosis of depression in hemodialysis patients.

              The prevalence of depression in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis has not been definitively determined. We examined the prevalence of depression and the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative likelihood ratios (+LR and -LR) of self-report scales using the physician-administered Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID) as the comparison. Ninety-eight consecutive patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Center for Epidemiological Study of Depression (CESD) scales. A physician blinded to BDI and CESD scores administered the SCID. Receiver/responder operating characteristic curves determined the best BDI and CESD cutoffs for depression. Depressed patients had more co-morbidities and lower quality of life, P<0.05. The prevalence of depression by SCID was 26.5% and of major depression was 17.3%. The CESD cutoff with the best diagnostic accuracy was 18, with sensitivity 69% (95% confidence interval (CI) (51%, 87%)), specificity 83% (95% CI (74%, 92%)), positive predictive value (PPV) 60%, negative predictive value (NPV) 88%, +LR 4.14, and -LR 0.37. The best BDI cutoff was 14, with sensitivity 62% (95% CI (43%, 81%)), specificity 81% (95% CI (72%, 90%)), PPV 53%, NPV 85%, +LR 3.26, and -LR 0.47. Self-report scales have high +LR but low -LR for diagnosis of depression. When used for screening, the threshold for depression should be higher for ESRD compared with non-ESRD patients. Identifying depression using physician interview is important, given the low -LR of self-report scales.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2014
                August 2014
                24 June 2014
                : 40
                : 1
                : 12-18
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, bDepartment of Psychiatry, and cInstitute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, and dTufts Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Tufts University, Boston, Mass., and eDivision of Nephrology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.Mex., USA
                Author notes
                *Daniel E. Weiner, MD MS, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington Street, Box #391, Boston, MA 02111 (USA), E-Mail dweiner@tuftsmedicalcenter.org
                Article
                363539 PMC4128686 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:12-18
                10.1159/000363539
                PMC4128686
                24969267
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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