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      Eco-friendly graphene oxide-based magnesium oxide nanocomposite synthesis using fungal fermented by-products and gamma rays for outstanding antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities

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      Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel.

          Nanomaterials are engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nanometers or less. These materials are increasingly being used for commercial purposes such as fillers, opacifiers, catalysts, semiconductors, cosmetics, microelectronics, and drug carriers. Materials in this size range may approach the length scale at which some specific physical or chemical interactions with their environment can occur. As a result, their properties differ substantially from those bulk materials of the same composition, allowing them to perform exceptional feats of conductivity, reactivity, and optical sensitivity. Possible undesirable results of these capabilities are harmful interactions with biological systems and the environment, with the potential to generate toxicity. The establishment of principles and test procedures to ensure safe manufacture and use of nanomaterials in the marketplace is urgently required and achievable.
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            Is Open Access

            Metal nanoparticles: understanding the mechanisms behind antibacterial activity

            As the field of nanomedicine emerges, there is a lag in research surrounding the topic of nanoparticle (NP) toxicity, particularly concerned with mechanisms of action. The continuous emergence of bacterial resistance has challenged the research community to develop novel antibiotic agents. Metal NPs are among the most promising of these because show strong antibacterial activity. This review summarizes and discusses proposed mechanisms of antibacterial action of different metal NPs. These mechanisms of bacterial killing include the production of reactive oxygen species, cation release, biomolecule damages, ATP depletion, and membrane interaction. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of NPs on the regulation of genes and proteins (transcriptomic and proteomic) profiles is discussed.
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              Toxicity of graphene and graphene oxide nanowalls against bacteria.

              Bacterial toxicity of graphene nanosheets in the form of graphene nanowalls deposited on stainless steel substrates was investigated for both gram-positive and gram-negative models of bacteria. The graphene oxide nanowalls were obtained by electrophoretic deposition of Mg(2+)-graphene oxide nanosheets synthesized by a chemical exfoliation method. On the basis of measuring the efflux of cytoplasmic materials of the bacteria, it was found that the cell membrane damage of the bacteria caused by direct contact of the bacteria with the extremely sharp edges of the nanowalls was the effective mechanism in the bacterial inactivation. In this regard, the gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria with an outer membrane were more resistant to the cell membrane damage caused by the nanowalls than the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus lacking the outer membrane. Moreover, the graphene oxide nanowalls reduced by hydrazine were more toxic to the bacteria than the unreduced graphene oxide nanowalls. The better antibacterial activity of the reduced nanowalls was assigned to the better charge transfer between the bacteria and the more sharpened edges of the reduced nanowalls, during the contact interaction.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry
                J Nanostruct Chem
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                2008-9244
                2193-8865
                June 2021
                January 03 2021
                June 2021
                : 11
                : 2
                : 301-321
                Article
                10.1007/s40097-020-00369-3
                32880e57-4103-44d4-a10b-ffef60721e54
                © 2021

                https://www.springernature.com/gp/researchers/text-and-data-mining

                https://www.springernature.com/gp/researchers/text-and-data-mining

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