Excessive use of antibiotics poses a threat to public health and the environment. In ecosystems, such as the marine environment, antibiotic contamination has led to an increase in bacterial resistance. Therefore, the study of bacterial response to antibiotics and the regulation of resistance formation have become an important research field. Traditionally, the processes related to antibiotic responses and resistance regulation have mainly included the activation of efflux pumps, mutation of antibiotic targets, production of biofilms, and production of inactivated or passivation enzymes. In recent years, studies have shown that bacterial signaling networks can affect antibiotic responses and resistance regulation. Signaling systems mostly alter resistance by regulating biofilms, efflux pumps, and mobile genetic elements. Here we provide an overview of how bacterial intraspecific and interspecific signaling networks affect the response to environmental antibiotics. In doing so, this review provides theoretical support for inhibiting bacterial antibiotic resistance and alleviating health and ecological problems caused by antibiotic contamination.