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      A novel model of double replications and random loss accounts for rearrangements in the Mitogenome of Samariscus latus (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes)

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          Although more than one thousand complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences have been determined in teleostean fishes, only a few gene rearrangements have been observed, and genome-scale rearrangements are even rarer. However, flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) have been identified as having diverse types of mitochondrial gene rearrangements. It has been reported that tongue soles and the blue flounder mitogenomes exhibit different types of large-scale gene rearrangements.


          In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of another flatfish, Samariscus latus, was sequenced, and genome-scale rearrangements were observed. The genomic features of this flounder are different from those of any other studied vertebrates, including flatfish species too. The mitogenome of S. latus is characterized by the duplication and translocation of the control region (CR). The genes located between the two CRs are divided into two clusters in which their relative orders are maintained.


          We propose a “Double Replications and Random Loss” model to explain the rearrangement events in S. latus mitogenome. This model consists of the following steps. First, the CR was duplicated and translocated. Subsequently, double replications of the mitogenome were successively initiated from the two CRs, leading to the duplication of the genes between the two CRs. Finally, one of each pair of duplicated genes was lost in a random event.

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          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-352) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 46

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          We describe a program, tRNAscan-SE, which identifies 99-100% of transfer RNA genes in DNA sequence while giving less than one false positive per 15 gigabases. Two previously described tRNA detection programs are used as fast, first-pass prefilters to identify candidate tRNAs, which are then analyzed by a highly selective tRNA covariance model. This work represents a practical application of RNA covariance models, which are general, probabilistic secondary structure profiles based on stochastic context-free grammars. tRNAscan-SE searches at approximately 30 000 bp/s. Additional extensions to tRNAscan-SE detect unusual tRNA homologues such as selenocysteine tRNAs, tRNA-derived repetitive elements and tRNA pseudogenes.
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            BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program of Windows 95/98/NT

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                Author and article information

                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BioMed Central (London )
                9 May 2014
                9 May 2014
                : 15
                : 1
                CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou, 510301 People’s Republic of China
                © Shi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2014


                molecular rvolution, flatfish, flounder, mitochondrial recombination, gene order


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