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Redistribuição de gordura corporal e alterações no metabolismo de lipídeos e glicose em pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS Translated title: Body fat redistribution and changes in lipid and glucose metabolism in people living with HIV/AIDS

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      Abstract

      RESUMO: Introdução: A síndrome da lipodistrofia do HIV é caracterizada por alterações no metabolismo e na composição corporal, que aumentam o risco cardiovascular de pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS (PVHA) em uso da terapia antirretroviral de alta potência (TARV). Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de lipodistrofia e de alterações do metabolismo de lipídios e glicose em PVHA em uso da TARV. Métodos: Para avaliação antropométrica foram aferidos peso, estatura e circunferência abdominal (CA). Para avaliação da lipodistrofia foi realizado o exame físico (subjetivo) e o exame (objetivo) de absortometria com raios X de dupla energia (DEXA) por meio da razão de massa gorda (RMG). Foram também realizados exames de lipidograma e glicemia de jejum e utilizados os critérios sugeridos pelo The National Cholesterol Education Program III para classificação de alterações metabólicas. Resultados: A amostra final consistiu em 262 pacientes com idade média de 44,3 ± 10,2 anos. A lipodistrofia, de acordo com o exame físico, esteve presente em 47,7% (IC95% 41,7 - 53,8) dos pacientes, enquanto pela RMG (DEXA) sua prevalência foi de 40,8% (IC95% 33,1 - 48,5). A maioria (53,0%; IC95% 47,0 - 59,1) dos pacientes apresentou aumento de adiposidade abdominal segundo a CA. As alterações metabólicas mais presentes foram o HDL reduzido (67,6%; IC95% 61,9 - 73,2) e a hipertrigliceridemia (55,7%; IC95% 49,7 - 61,7). Conclusões: A alta prevalência de lipodistrofia e alterações do metabolismo de lipídios e glicose evidenciam a importância da intervenção precoce nesse grupo de pacientes para prevenir complicações cardiovasculares.

      Translated abstract

      ABSTRACT: Introduction: The HIV lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by changes in metabolism, and body composition that increase cardiovascular risk of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Objective: To assess the prevalence of lipodystrophy and changes in lipid and glucose metabolism in PLWHA in use of HAART. Methods: For the anthropometric evaluation we measured weight, height and abdominal circumference (AC). For the lipodystrophy evaluation we conducted physical examination (subjective) and the (objective) examination of absorptiometry with X-ray dual energy (DEXA) by fat mass ratio (FMR). We also conducted lipid profile tests and fasting glucose and used the criteria suggested by The National Cholesterol Education Program III for metabolic disorders classification. Results: The final sample consisted of 262 patients with a mean age of 44.3 ± 10.2 years. Lipodystrophy, according to the physical examination, was present in 47.7% (95%CI 41.7 - 53.8) of patients, while the prevalence using FMR (DEXA) was 40.8% (95%CI 33.1 - 48.5). Most (53.0%; 95%CI 47.0 - 59.1) of the patients showed increased abdominal adiposity according to AC. The most prevalent metabolic alterations were reduced HDL (67.6%; 95%CI 61.9 - 73.2) and hypertriglyceridemia (55.7%; 95%CI 49.7 - 61.7). Conclusion: The high prevalence of lipodystrophy and changes in lipid and glucose metabolism show the importance of early intervention in this group of patients to prevent cardiovascular complications.

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      Most cited references 34

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      Leptin secretion from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in women.

      Upper body obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the regulation of body fat distribution, but leptin may be involved. This study examined the secretion of leptin in subcutaneous and omental fat tissue in 15 obese and 8 nonobese women. Leptin secretion rates were two to three times higher in subcutaneous than in omental fat tissue in both obese and nonobese women (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). There was a positive correlation between BMI and leptin secretion rates in both subcutaneous (r = 0.87, P < 0.0001) and omental (r = 0.74, P < 0.0001) fat tissue. Furthermore, leptin secretion rates in subcutaneous and omental fat tissue correlated well with serum leptin levels (r = 0.84, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.73, P = 0.001, respectively), although in multivariate analysis, the subcutaneous leptin secretion rate was the major regressor for serum leptin (F = 42). Subcutaneous fat cells were approximately 50% larger than omental fat cells, and there was a positive correlation between fat cell size and leptin secretion rate in both fat depots (r = 0.8, P < 0.01). Leptin (but not gamma-actin) mRNA levels were twofold higher in subcutaneous than in omental fat tissue (P < 0.05). Thus the subcutaneous fat depot is the major source of leptin in women owing to the combination of a mass effect (subcutaneous fat being the major depot) and a higher secretion rate in the subcutaneous than in the visceral region, which in turn could be due to increased cell size and leptin gene expression.
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        Subdivisions of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and insulin resistance.

        Whereas truncal (central) adiposity is strongly associated with the insulin resistant metabolic syndrome, it is uncertain whether this is accounted for principally by visceral adiposity (VAT). Several recent studies find as strong or stronger association between subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (SAT) and insulin resistance. To reexamine the issue of truncal adipose tissue depots, we performed cross-sectional abdominal computed tomography, and we undertook the novel approach of partitioning SAT into the plane superficial to the fascia within subcutaneous adipose tissue (superficial SAT) and that below this fascia (deep SAT), as well as measurement of VAT. Among 47 lean and obese glucose-tolerant men and women, insulin-stimulated glucose utilization, measured by euglycemic clamp, was strongly correlated with both VAT and deep SAT (r = -0.61 and -0.64, respectively; both P < 0.001), but not with superficial SAT (r = -0.29, not significant). Also, VAT and deep SAT followed a highly congruent pattern of associations with glucose and insulin area under the curve (75-g oral glucose tolerance test), mean arterial blood pressure, apoprotein-B, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride. Superficial SAT had markedly weaker association with all these parameters and instead followed the pattern observed for thigh subcutaneous adiposity. We conclude that there are two functionally distinct compartments of adipose tissue within abdominal subcutaneous fat and that the deep SAT has a strong relation to insulin resistance.
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          The use of the Framingham equation to predict myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected patients: comparison with observed events in the D:A:D Study.

          The D:A:D (Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs) Study, a prospective observational study on a cohort of 23 468 patients with HIV infection, indicated that the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) increased by 26% per year of exposure to combination antiretroviral treatment (CART). However, it remains unclear whether the observed increase in the rate of MI in this population can be attributed to changes in conventional cardiovascular risk factors. To compare the number of MIs observed among participants in the D:A:D Study with the number predicted by assuming that conventional cardiovascular risk equations apply to patients with HIV infection. The Framingham equation, a conventional cardiovascular risk algorithm, was applied to individual patient data in the D:A:D Study to predict rates of MI by duration of CART. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of model and data assumptions. Predictions were extrapolated to provide 10-year risk estimates, and various scenarios were modelled to assess the expected effect of different interventions. In patients receiving CART, the observed numbers of MIs during D:A:D follow up were similar to or somewhat higher than predicted numbers: 9 observed vs 5.5 events predicted, 14 vs 9.8, 22 vs 14.9, 31 vs 23.2 and 47 vs 37.0 for 4 years CART exposure, respectively. In patients who had not received CART, the observed number of MIs was fewer than predicted (3 observed vs 7.6 predicted). Nine per cent of the study population have a predicted 10-year risk of MI above 10%, a level usually associated with initiation of intervention on risk factors. A consistent feature of all analyses was that observed and predicted rates of MI increased in a parallel fashion with increased CART duration, suggesting that the observed increase in risk of MI may at least in part be explained by CART-induced changes in conventional risk factors. These findings provide guidance in terms of choosing lifestyle or therapeutic interventions to decrease those risk factors in much the same way as in persons without HIV infection.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Ribeirão Preto orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto Brazil
            Ribeirão Preto orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Escola de Educação Física e Esporte de Ribeirão Preto Brazil
            Franca São Paulo orgnameUniversidade de Franca Brazil
            Ribeirão Preto orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto Brazil
            Ribeirão Preto orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto orgdiv2Departamento de Clínica Médica Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
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            Journal
            rbepid
            Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia
            Rev. bras. epidemiol.
            Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
            1415-790X
            1980-5497
            September 2017
            : 20
            : suppl 1
            : 526-536
            S1415-790X2017000500526 10.1590/1980-5497201700030014

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 11
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            Product Information: SciELO Public Health

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