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      Water photolysis at 12.3% efficiency via perovskite photovoltaics and Earth-abundant catalysts.

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          Abstract

          Although sunlight-driven water splitting is a promising route to sustainable hydrogen fuel production, widespread implementation is hampered by the expense of the necessary photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical apparatus. Here, we describe a highly efficient and low-cost water-splitting cell combining a state-of-the-art solution-processed perovskite tandem solar cell and a bifunctional Earth-abundant catalyst. The catalyst electrode, a NiFe layered double hydroxide, exhibits high activity toward both the oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions in alkaline electrolyte. The combination of the two yields a water-splitting photocurrent density of around 10 milliamperes per square centimeter, corresponding to a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 12.3%. Currently, the perovskite instability limits the cell lifetime.

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          Most cited references 39

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          A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films

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            Electrochemical Photolysis of Water at a Semiconductor Electrode

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              Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells.

              Two organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals, CH(3)NH(3)PbBr(3) and CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3), were found to efficiently sensitize TiO(2) for visible-light conversion in photoelectrochemical cells. When self-assembled on mesoporous TiO(2) films, the nanocrystalline perovskites exhibit strong band-gap absorptions as semiconductors. The CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3)-based photocell with spectral sensitivity of up to 800 nm yielded a solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.8%. The CH(3)NH(3)PbBr(3)-based cell showed a high photovoltage of 0.96 V with an external quantum conversion efficiency of 65%.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), 637371 Singapore.
                [2 ] Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. School of Chemical Engineering and Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746, Korea.
                [3 ] Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
                [4 ] School of Chemical Engineering and Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746, Korea.
                [5 ] Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), 637371 Singapore.
                [6 ] Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. michael.graetzel@epfl.ch.
                Journal
                Science
                Science (New York, N.Y.)
                1095-9203
                0036-8075
                Sep 26 2014
                : 345
                : 6204
                345/6204/1593 10.1126/science.1258307 25258076
                Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

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