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      Transforming Growth Factor-β 1 Inhibits Vascular Permeability Factor Release by T Cells in Normal Subjects and in Patients with Minimal-Change Nephrotic Syndrome


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          Background/Aim: A lymphokine, the vascular permeability factor (VPF), which increases vascular permeability, has been characterized in minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is an immunosuppressive cytokine that inhibits proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxic activity of T cells and natural killer cells. We, therefore, investigated the effects of TGF-β<sub>1</sub> on the release of VPF by peripheral blood T cells from MCNS patients. The aim of our study was to determine the in vitro immunosuppressive capacity of TGF-β<sub>1</sub> in patients with MCNS. Methods: To further test the effect of TGF-β<sub>1</sub> on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced VPF release, normal and MCNS T cells were stimulated with 5 µg/ml of Con A in the presence or absence of TGF-β<sub>1</sub>, and the culture supernatants were tested for the presence of VPF by the method of Lagrue et al. The disease controls included 16 patients with IgA nephropathy. Results: Significantly increased spontaneous and Con A-stimulated secretion of VPF was detected in T-cell cultures of MCNS patients with the nephrotic syndrome as compared with those of normal controls. Addition of TGF-β<sub>1</sub> to these cultures inhibited the release of VPF in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of TGF-β<sub>1</sub> on the release of VPF was specific, since a reversion was obtained with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to human TGF-β<sub>1</sub>. Conclusion: Together, our data demonstrate that TGF-β<sub>1</sub> antagonizes the ability of T cells to release VPF, and suggest a role of TGF-β<sub>1</sub> in the pathophysiology of VPF in vitro.

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          Inflammatory and immunomodulatory roles of TGF-β

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            Interleukin-4 Cooperates with Interleukin-10 to Inhibit Vascular Permeability Factor Release by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Minimal-Change Nephrotic Syndrome

            Increased production of a vascular permeability factor (VPF) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) has been reported. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), both produced by T-helper type-2 cells, are cytokines with the capacity to downregulate proinflammatory responses. To gain insight into the immunoregulatory properties of these cytokines, we analyzed the effects of recombinant human IL-4 and IL-10 on VPF release in MCNS patients. In the present study we show that the regulatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 are potent inhibitors of the VPF activity of concanavalin A-activated MCNS PBMC. Each cytokine was found to suppress VPF release in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, when used at suboptimal concentrations, a combination of the two cytokines resulted in enhanced suppression of VPF release. Neutralization of endogenously produced IL-4 and IL-10 by both anti-IL-4 and anti-IL-10 antibodies resulted in an increased release of VPF. These data demonstrate that IL-4 acts in concert with IL-10 to inhibit VPF release and suggest that they are effective biologic regulators of the VPF responses in vitro.

              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              16 February 2001
              : 87
              : 2
              : 111-117
              aDepartment of Medical Technology, College of Medical Sciences, Saitama Prefectural University, Koshigaya, Saitama, and bSecond Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
              45898 Nephron 2001;87:111–117
              © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Figures: 3, References: 24, Pages: 7
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45898
              Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/45898
              Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
              Original Paper

              Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
              Minimal-change nephrotic syndrome,IgA nephropathy,Nephrotic syndrome,Vascular permeability factor,Transforming growth factor-β


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