The historical Godeffroy Collection of spiders at the Centrum für Naturkunde (CeNak) in Hamburg comprises several hundred type specimens from Australia and is an essential source for arachnologists around the world. In this paper, we re-describe and illustrate the Australian Oxyopes material from this collection. Most specimens were collected by C. F. Eduard Dämel for the Godeffroy Museum and described in 1871-1881 by pioneering arachnologist Ludwig Carl Christian Koch as part of the first monograph on Australian spiders: Die Arachniden Australiens. Twelve species are redescribed and properly illustrated for the first time: Oxyopes amoenus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes attenuatus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes elegans L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes gratus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes gracilipes (White, 1849), Oxyopes macilentus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes molarius L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes mundulus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes punctatus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch, 1878, Oxyopes rubicundus L. Koch, 1878, and Oxyopes variabilis L. Koch, 1878. Oxyopes lautus L. Koch, 1878 is treated as a numen dubium because both palps are lost. The new species Oxyopes godeffroyi sp. n. is described from this historical material and was probably overlooked by Koch. An identification key for these species is provided and the history of these specimens reviewed briefly. A map shows the localities of the redescribed Oxyopes species and the general distribution of the Oxyopes species in Queensland.