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      Research Review: Cognitive bias modification of interpretations in youth and its effect on anxiety: a meta-analysis

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          Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive bias modification of interpretations (CBM-I) is effective in altering interpretation biases and reducing anxiety in adults. Less is known about the impact of CBM-I in young people, but some recent findings, including a meta-analysis of combined cognitive bias modification of interpretation and attention techniques, have cast doubt on its clinical utility. Given the current debate, this meta-analysis sought to establish the independent effects of CBM-I on interpretations biases and anxiety in youth.

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          Most cited references44

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          The global burden of anxiety disorders in 2010.

          Despite their high prevalence, the global burden of anxiety disorders has never been calculated comprehensively. The new Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has estimated burden due to morbidity and mortality caused by any anxiety disorder.
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            Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: a 5-year longitudinal study.

            A 5-year longitudinal study investigated the interrelationships among children's experiences of depressive symptoms, negative life events, explanatory style, and helplessness behaviors in social and achievement situations. The results revealed that early in childhood, negative events, but not explanatory style, predicted depressive symptoms; later in childhood, a pessimistic explanatory style emerged as a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, alone and in conjunction with negative events. When children suffered periods of depression, their explanatory styles not only deteriorated but remained pessimistic even after their depression subsided, presumably putting them at risk for future episodes of depression. Some children seem repeatedly prone to depressive symptoms over periods of at least 2 years. Depressed children consistently showed helpless behaviors in social and achievement settings.
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              Induced emotional interpretation bias and anxiety.

              Five experiments are reported showing that the interpretation of personally relevant emotional information can be modified by systematic exposure to congruent exemplars. Participants were induced to interpret ambiguous information in a relatively threatening or a benign way. Comparison with a baseline condition suggested that negative and positive induction had similar but opposing effects. Induction of an interpretative bias did not require active generation of personally relevant meanings, but such active processing was necessary before state anxiety changed in parallel with the induced interpretative bias. These findings provide evidence consistent with a causal link between the deployment of interpretative bias and anxiety and reveal something of the processes underlying this association.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
                J Child Psychol Psychiatr
                August 2018
                August 2018
                October 20 2017
                : 59
                : 8
                : 831-844
                [1 ]OCD & Related Disorders Clinic for Young People; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust; London UK
                [2 ]Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience; King's College London; London UK
                [3 ]Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention; University of Oxford; Oxford UK
                [4 ]RAND Corporation; Santa Monica CA USA
                [5 ]Department of Experimental Psychology; University of Oxford; Oxford UK
                [6 ]Department of Social Policy and Social Work; University of Birmingham; Birmingham UK
                © 2017





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