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      Risk Factors for Cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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          Abstract

          Background and objective:

          Cholangiocarcinoma remains a serious public health concern in Thailand. While many of the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in western countries are well-recognized, it remains unclear whether they are the same in Thailand. We set out to investigate the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand.

          Methods:

          Starting March 4, 2016, we reviewed studies found using pre-specified keywords on SCOPUS, Pro Quest Science Direct, PubMed, and online public access catalog of Khon Kaen University. Two review authors independently screened studies for inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the studied Risk of Bias. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools were used to assess the quality of included studies. The risk effects of factors were estimated as a pooled adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. The heterogeneity of results was considered using the I-square, Tau-square and Chi-square statistics.

          Results:

          A strong association was found between cholangiocarcinoma and age, Opisthorchis viverrini infection, eating raw cyprinoid fish, family history of cancer, liquor consumption, and taking praziquantel. There was only a mild association found between eating nitrite-containing foods, fresh vegetables, education, smoking behavior, and sex. No association was found between cholangiocarcinoma and eating fermented fish (Pla-ra), northeastern Thai or Chinese sausage, sticky rice, meat, chewing betel nut, or eating fruit. There were two protective factors including fresh vegetables consumption and education attainment.

          Conclusion:

          There are unique risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand, including age, Opisthorchis viverrini infection, eating raw cyprinoid fish, family history of cancer, liquor consumption, and taking praziquantel.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Are common factors involved in the pathogenesis of primary liver cancers? A meta-analysis of risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

          Well established risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma such as biliary tract inflammation and liver flukes are not present in most Western countries patients. Although cirrhosis and other causes of chronic liver disease have been implicated, their contribution as risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma is unclear and our aims were to analyze these emerging potential risk factors by systematic examination of case-control series from geographically diverse regions. We performed a literature review and meta-analysis of case-control studies on intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and cirrhosis and related risk factors. Tests of heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity analyses were performed and an overall odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals calculated. Eleven studies from both high and low prevalence regions were identified. All studies except those evaluating cirrhosis, diabetes, and obesity exhibited significant heterogeneity. Cirrhosis was associated with a combined OR of 22.92 (95% CI=18.24-28.79). Meta-analysis estimated the overall odds ratio (with 95% confidence intervals) for defined risk factors such as hepatitis B: 5.10 (2.91-8.95), hepatitis C: 4.84 (2.41-9.71), obesity: 1.56 (1.26-1.94), diabetes mellitus type II: 1.89 (1.74-2.07), smoking: 1.31 (0.95-1.82), and alcohol use: 2.81 (1.52-5.21). Sensitivity analysis did not alter the odds ratio for any risk factors except smoking and there was no evidence of publication bias. Cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B and C, alcohol use, diabetes, and obesity are major risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. These data suggest a common pathogenesis of primary intrahepatic epithelial cancers. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Pathogenesis and classification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: different characters of perihilar large duct type versus peripheral small duct type.

            Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) are made up of heterogenous carcinomas arising from different anatomical sites of the liver. Two types of candidate stem/progenitor cells of the biliary tree are postulated to exist at the peribiliary glands for large bile ducts and at the canals of Hering for small ducts and hepatocytes. According to the recent observations, ICCs can be subclassified into two types: tumors involving the large bile ducts comparable in size to the intrahepatic second branches and composed of a tubular or papillary component with tall columnar epithelium, and tumors involving the smaller duct than segmental branches and composed of small tubules with cuboidal epithelium. Perihilar large duct type ICCs can be interpreted as arising from large bile duct type ICCs, and peripheral small duct type ICCs may arise from small bile duct type or ductular type ICCs. Chronic biliary inflammation induces neoplastic change of the large bile ducts and thereby progression to the perihilar large duct type ICC, which can be grossly classified into periductal filtrating type ICC and intraductal growth type ICC, while chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis induces mass-forming peripheral small duct type ICC. The different morphological and molecular features, including stromal components and tumor vasculature, support the hypothesis that perihilar large duct type ICCs and peripheral small duct type ICCs arise from different backgrounds, have different carcinogenetic pathways, and exhibit different biologic behaviors.
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              Checklists of methodological issues for review authors to consider when including non-randomized studies in systematic reviews.

              There is increasing interest from review authors about including non-randomized studies (NRS) in their systematic reviews of health care interventions. This series from the Ottawa Non-Randomized Studies Workshop consists of six papers identifying methodological issues when doing this.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
                Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev
                Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention : APJCP
                West Asia Organization for Cancer Prevention (Iran )
                1513-7368
                2476-762X
                2018
                : 19
                : 3
                : 605-614
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Thailand
                [2 ] ASEAN Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research Group, Thailand
                [3 ] Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand
                [4 ] Cancer Unit, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand
                [5 ] Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand
                [6 ] Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand
                Author notes
                [* ] For Correspondence: rsirip@ 123456kku.ac.th
                Article
                APJCP-19-605
                10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.3.605
                5980830
                29579789
                Copyright: © Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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